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Lecture

Cellular energy lecture for Bio 105

4 Pages
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Department
BIOL - Biology
Course Code
BIOL 105
Professor
Gregory Zagursky

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Description
Biology 105 Cellular Energy Basic mechanisms of energy release and storage Cells tap energy from electrons falling from organic fuels to oxygen Glucose gives up energy as it is oxidized loses electronselectrons lose potential energy Electrons fall down energy gradient Dehydrogenase removes electron in hydrogen atoms from glucose molecules oxidation And transfers them to NAD reduction NADH passes electrons to an electron transport chain As electrons fall from carrier to carrier and finally to O2 Energy is released in small quantitiesCellular Energy 1 All organisms use ATP to do cellular work 2 All organisms use some form of cellular respiration to produce ATP 3 All organisms start with glucose and break it down in series of enzyme controlled steps Some of the energy released is captured to make ATP the rest is lost as heat In an explosion O2 is reduced in one step 4 An electron transport chain ETC allows for the gradual controlled release of energy not present in all organisms 5 The maximum amount of ATP will be produced when all of the electrons from glucose pass through an ETC and oxygen is present to accept them Only occurs in organisms that have aerobic cellular respiration Must have mitochondriaStages of cellular respiration and fermentation Aerobic cellular respiration occurs in three main stages Cellular respiration oxidizes sugar and produces ATP in three main stages Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm all cells The citric acid cycle Krebss cycle and the oxidative phosphorylation via the electron transport chain occur in the mitochondriaI Glycolysis harvest chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate Output Net 2 ATP gained Two 3carbon molecules 2 electrons Glycolysis produces ATP by substrate level phosphorylationIn which a phosphate group is transferred from an organic molecule to ADP Two pathways to process the output from glycolysis 1if oxygen and mitochondria are present aerobic respiration 2 if oxygen andor mitochondria are absent anaerobic respirationII Aerobic RespirationOccurs in most cells
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