SPED 08130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Speech-Language Pathology, Speech Disorder, Language Disorder

11 pages67 viewsSpring 2017

Department
Special Education Services and Instruction
Course Code
SPED 08130
Professor
Randel
Lecture
5

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Chapter 5 Notes
Section 1: Speech and Language Impairments Defined
Speech: The physical act of producing verbal communication
Speech Impairment: Abnormal speech that is difficult to understand or interferes with
communication
Fluency: The flow, smoothness, rate, or continuity of speech production
Language: The complex, rule-based system of communication used to exchange thoughts
and ideas with others
Language Disorders: Difficulty or inability to master the various systems of rules in language,
which then interferes with communication
Students with language disorders exhibit an impaired ability to express their thoughts, ideas,
or needs so others understand their intended message; they also have difficulty
comprehending the messages that others are trying to convey
Vibrating system: the larynx and vocal folds, which vibrate and produce sounds and pitch
Resonating system: Oral and nasal cavities where speech sounds are produced
Speech mechanisms: The various parts of the body (tongue, lips, teeth, mandible, palate)
required for oral speech
Communication breakdowns occur when:
The sender incorrectly produces speech sounds and the receiver cannot understand the
words
The sender has difficulties using language correctly and the message is unclear to the
receiver
The receiver has difficulty interpreting or understanding the intent, even though the
sender’s message was clear
Speech impairments are the root of the first communication break down where language
creates second and third communication problems in the breakdown
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Communication Disorder: Disorders in speech, language, or hearing that impair
communication— often used to include all disabilities that result in difficulties with speech,
language, and hearing
Section 2: Types of Speech or Language Impairments
Speech impairments include problems with articulation, fluent, and voice
Misarticulation: Abnormal production of speech sounds— flawed
Dysfluencies: Hesitations prolongations, interruptions, or repetitions of sounds or words that
interrupt a person’s flow of speech; a speech disorder
Stuttering: The lack of fluency in an individual’s speech pattern, often characterized by
hesitations or repetitions of sounds or words
Cluttering: A type of dysfluency in an individual’s speech pattern, often characterized by rapid,
unorganized, or unintelligible speech containing omissions of sounds or word parts
Voice problems: Abnormal spoken language production, characterized by unusual pitch,
intensity, phonation, or resonance
Pitch: High or low quality of pitch— included in voice problems
Intensity: Loudness or softness— included in voice problems
Phonation: The voice sounds too breathy, hoarse, husky, strained— included in voice
problems
Resonance: Too much or too little nasality— included in voice problems
Students with language impairments, communication is hindered by a breakdown in one of the
three aspects of language— form, content, use
Form: The rule system of language; includes phonology, morphology, and syntax
Phonology: The rules within a language used to govern the combo of speech sounds to
form words and sentences
Morphology: Rules that govern the structure and form of words and comprise the basic
meaning of words
Syntax: Rules that govern word endings and order of words in phrases and sentences
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Students with language impairments may demonstrate confusion with these elements and
may have difficulty understanding or conveying the accurate intent or meaning of a
communication, specifically with indirect or implied statements
Content (language): An aspect of language that governs the intent and meaning of the
message delivered in a communication
Use: The ability to apply language rules correctly in a variety of settings
Pragmatics: the appropriate use of language in social contexts
Four Types of Articulation Errors (Misarticulation)
Substitution: One sound or group of sounds is consistently used instead of another
Omission: A sound or group of sounds is left out of a word
Distortion: A variation of the intended sound is produced in an unfamiliar manner
Addition: An extra sound is inserted
Section 3: Characteristics
Speech disorders do not cause academic difficulties, but social and self-esteem issues are
common
Most students who have speech disorders (articulation, fluency, voice) attend general
education classes and function well academically— their disorder typically doesn't influence
academic learning
Students with severe speech disorders may be reluctant to speak in class, inhibiting their
ability to answer teacher asked questions, work with partners, or in small groups, and give
presentations
Expressive Language: The ability to convey thoughts, feelings, or information
Necessary to demonstrate knowledge— answering teacher questions, taking tests, writing
reports, and giving presentations
Student with expressive language disorder may know the answer to a teacher’s question
but have difficulty formulating that knowledge to a spoken sentence
Receptive Language: Understanding information that is received, through seeing, hearing, or
touching (Ex: braille)
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