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Lecture 5

SPED 08130 Lecture 5: Chapter 5 Notes

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SPED - Special Education
SPED 08130

find more resources at Chapter 5 Notes Section 1: Speech and Language Impairments Defined • Speech: The physical act of producing verbal communication • Speech Impairment: Abnormal speech that is difficult to understand or interferes with communication • Fluency: The flow, smoothness, rate, or continuity of speech production • Language: The complex, rule-based system of communication used to exchange thoughts and ideas with others • Language Disorders: Difficulty or inability to master the various systems of rules in language, which then interferes with communication • Students with language disorders exhibit an impaired ability to express their thoughts, ideas, or needs so others understand their intended message; they also have difficulty comprehending the messages that others are trying to convey • Vibrating system: the larynx and vocal folds, which vibrate and produce sounds and pitch • Resonating system: Oral and nasal cavities where speech sounds are produced • Speech mechanisms: The various parts of the body (tongue, lips, teeth, mandible, palate) required for oral speech • Communication breakdowns occur when: • The sender incorrectly produces speech sounds and the receiver cannot understand the words • The sender has difficulties using language correctly and the message is unclear to the receiver • The receiver has difficulty interpreting or understanding the intent, even though the sender’s message was clear • Speech impairments are the root of the first communication break down where language creates second and third communication problems in the breakdown find more resources at find more resources at • Communication Disorder: Disorders in speech, language, or hearing that impair communication— often used to include all disabilities that result in difficulties with speech, language, and hearing Section 2: Types of Speech or Language Impairments • Speech impairments include problems with articulation, fluent, and voice • Misarticulation: Abnormal production of speech sounds— flawed • Dysfluencies: Hesitations prolongations, interruptions, or repetitions of sounds or words that interrupt a person’s flow of speech; a speech disorder • Stuttering: The lack of fluency in an individual’s speech pattern, often characterized by hesitations or repetitions of sounds or words • Cluttering: A type of dysfluency in an individual’s speech pattern, often characterized by rapid, unorganized, or unintelligible speech containing omissions of sounds or word parts • Voice problems: Abnormal spoken language production, characterized by unusual pitch, intensity, phonation, or resonance • Pitch: High or low quality of pitch— included in voice problems • Intensity: Loudness or softness— included in voice problems • Phonation: The voice sounds too breathy, hoarse, husky, strained— included in voice problems • Resonance: Too much or too little nasality— included in voice problems • Students with language impairments, communication is hindered by a breakdown in one of the three aspects of language— form, content, use • Form: The rule system of language; includes phonology, morphology, and syntax • Phonology: The rules within a language used to govern the combo of speech sounds to form words and sentences • Morphology: Rules that govern the structure and form of words and comprise the basic meaning of words • Syntax: Rules that govern word endings and order of words in phrases and sentences find more resources at find more resources at • Students with language impairments may demonstrate confusion with these elements and may have difficulty understanding or conveying the accurate intent or meaning of a communication, specifically with indirect or implied statements • Content (language): An aspect of language that governs the intent and meaning of the message delivered in a communication • Use: The ability to apply language rules correctly in a variety of settings • Pragmatics: the appropriate use of language in social contexts • Four Types of Articulation Errors (Misarticulation) • Substitution: One sound or group of sounds is consistently used instead of another • Omission: A sound or group of sounds is left out of a word • Distortion: A variation of the intended sound is produced in an unfamiliar manner Addition: An extra sound is inserted • Section 3: Characteristics • Speech disorders do not cause academic difficulties, but social and self-esteem issues are common • Most students who have speech disorders (articulation, fluency, voice) attend general education classes and function well academically— their disorder typically doesn't influence academic learning • Students with severe speech disorders may be reluctant to speak in class, inhibiting their ability to answer teacher asked questions, work with partners, or in small groups, and give presentations • Expressive Language: The ability to convey thoughts, feelings, or information • Necessary to demonstrate knowledge— answering teacher questions, taking tests, writing reports, and giving presentations • Student with expressive language disorder may know the answer to a teacher’s question but have difficulty formulating that knowledge to a spoken sentence • Receptive Language: Understanding information that is received, through seeing, hearing, or touching (Ex: braille) find more resources at find more resources at • Important for gaining knowledge- comprehending lectures and written materials, understanding and following teacher instructions, and complying with classroom and school rules • Pragmatics: The appropriate use of language in social contexts • Communicative competence: Proficiency in all aspects of communication in social and learning situations Section 4: Challenges and Their Solutions • Students with speech impairments benefit from speech therapy • Speech-language therapy: A related service in which a student receives specialized instruction to improve speech or language skills • Speech-language pathologist (SLP): The professional who diagnoses and treats speech or language impairments; a related service provider • An SLP can help children reduce disfluencies like stuttering by showing them how to control and monitor their rate of speech Ways peers and teachers can help • • Maintain eye contact when a students is having difficulty communicating, rather than looking away • Waiting for a students to finish his sentence or thought rather than interrupting or finishing a sentence for him Providing a respectful, supportive environment where students feel accepted • • Language therapy: A related service in which a student receives specialized instruction to improve speech or language skills (instead of speech therapy) • Explicit Instruction: Directly teaching the desired instructional skills, goals, or target • Content enhancement strategies: Methods to help students organized and remember important concepts— from lectures and textbooks • Graphic organizers: Visual aids used to help students organized, understand, and remember academic content Section 5: People and Situations find more resources at find more resources at • A person’s speech impairments should not be considered an indication of his or her intellectual abilities • People mistakenly interpret a speech disorder, slow, labored speech or misarticulation, to be an indication of an intellectual impairment and they treat these individuals as though they had diminished cognitive capabilities Section 6: Origins of Speech and Language Impairments • Services for students with speech and language impairments started about 100 years ago, but focused primarily on articulation disorders • Records dating before 1000 BC reveal that individuals with disabilities were historically considered fools, buffoons, and sources of entertainment, often because of their speech or language problems • Roman Empire would place people with disabilities in cages along Appian Way (main road) for amusement of those passing by, families planned special outings specifically to go see them and people would throw coins at their cages • In 1913 the superintendent of NYC schools began a program of speech training for children with speech impairments • First passage of IDEA passed in 1975 • Service
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