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Lecture 7

SPED 08130 Lecture 7: Chapter 7 Notes

9 Pages

SPED - Special Education
Course Code
SPED 08130

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find more resources at Chapter 7 Notes:Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Section 1-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Described • Student withADHD demonstrate inattention, hyperactivity, and/ or impulsivity to such an extent that their schoolwork is affected • Many people refer toADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) asADD (attention deficit disorder) which is not the medically correct term (ADHD is) • No separate category forADHD in IDEA, students who haveADHD must qualify under the “other health impairment” category for special education services • Most accepted definition ofADHD is developed byAmerican PsychiatricAssociation (APA) in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, this has a stronger medical theme for diagnosis than the federal criteria • When inattention, excessive activity, or impulsivity is more frequent or severe than usually observedADHD is present in that individual— only when they are not developmentally appropriate and interfere with an individual’s social, academic, or occupational performance • Symptoms ofADHD (condition) must have been present before age 12, have endured for at least 6 months, and occur in two or more settings • Student display either: • greater than or equal to 6 symptoms of inattention • greater than or equal to 6 symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity (H-I) • greater than or equal to 6 symptoms each for both inattention and H-I • Behavior must: • have persisted greater than or equal to 6 months find more resources at find more resources at • have been present before age 12 • be present in greater than or equal to 2 settings • be severe enough to affect social, academic, or occupational performance • not be caused by other disorders Section 2- Types ofAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders • Students withADHD may demonstrate inattentiveness, or hyperactivity and impulsivity • Individuals withADHD can display symptoms of extreme inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, or a combination of traits • Inattention: Inability to pay attention or focus— commonly seen by parents and teachers, especially when sustained effort is required • Hyperactivity: Impaired ability to sit or concentrate for long periods of time— commonly associated toADHD Research shows that hyperactivity diminishes with age as students learn to better control their • behavior— but compared to peers still show higher levels of restlessness and such • Impulsivity: Impaired ability to control or inhibit one’s own behavior • Students with impulsivity may interrupt conversations, random comments made, or state any thought that comes to mind • Often do things without forethought so these students are at higher risk for taking part in harmful or dangerous behaviors like running into the street without looking both ways, jumping off playground equipments, trying drugs without knowing the possible consequences • ADHD specifiers— inattentive presentation, hyperactive-impulsive presentation, and combined presentation (goes into greater detail on pg 171 of text) find more resources at find more resources at Section 3- Characteristics • Problems with executive functions are typical for students withADHD and can negatively affect academics, behavior, and social skills • Three defining traits ofADHD: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity— related to executive functions • Executive functions: the cognitive abilities that enable us to plan, to self-regulate, to engage in goal-directed activities— also control ability to inhibit inappropriate behaviors • Students withADHD spend less time engaged in academic activities/ tasks • Students withADHD attribute accomplishments to external factors, less persistent, expend less effort, and take less enjoyment in learning— resulting in lower grades and increased risk for school failure • have trouble studying for long periods of time tend to be disorganized and forgetful • • produce sloppy, careless, or incomplete assignments • These students can cause frustration for their teachers • AsADHD characteristics increase the potential for positive social interactions decreases— often judge themselves as social failure and engage in more solitary activities (independent) leading to increased alienation and withdrawn of social interaction Section 4- Challenges and Their Solutions • Acombination of behavioral therapy and medication is an effective treatment option for most students withADHD find more resources at find more resources at • Stimulant medication:Aclass of psychoactive drug that increases activity in the brain, resulting in temporary improvement • Behavioral therapy: Technique that replaces specific, negative, undesirable behaviors with new, positive, appropriate behaviors • Both treatments above were found to be more effective than behavior therapy alone or routine community care • Behavioral therapy or behavior modification: Systematic control of environmental events— particularly consequences— that produce specific changes in a student’s observable responses; may include reinforcement, punishment, self-regulation, and other techniques for increasing or decreasing a student’s behavioral response • Functional behavioral assessment (FBA):Aprocess int which data is collected to determine why a student engages in certain behaviors, with the goal of helping the student replace inappropriate behaviors with more acceptable ones • After doing an FBAstudents are taught more socially acceptable means for dealing with a situation • Providing specific and immediate feedback is more affective than waiting a prolonged time period with students who haveADHD • Self-Regulation strategies: Strategies that help a student learn to control his or her own behavior; usually include components of self-mmnitorying, self-instruction, goal setting, and self-reinforcement; see also self-management strategies find more resources at find more resources at • Time management instruction: Instruction that teaches students to consciously plan and monitor the amount of time spent on specific activities, usually to increase efficiency, productivity, or educational outcomes • Beneficial to parents to take behavioral training, this will allow them to overcome any of the frustrations of raising a child withADHD. Helps parents to: • establish a structured home environment • utilize positive reinforcement effectively • deliver consequences fairly and consistently • intervene appropriately when there is a problem • communicate effectively with school and medical professionals Section 5- People and Situations • Many individuals withADHD lear
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