01:512:104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Social Gospel, Revenue Act Of 1913, Federal Meat Inspection Act

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Chapter 21 - The Progressive Era, 1895-1920
I. Introduction
The crises of the 1890s generated a broad, complex reform movement known
as Progressivism that hoped to apply scientific principles and efficient
management to economic, social, and political institutions. Many looked to
government as the agent of change.
II. The Varied Progressive Impulse
A. Foreign Influences
Organizations began to influence government policy in the 1890s, fragmenting
politics and making them more issue oriented. Furthermore, ideas from
Europe had an impact on Progressive reformers in the United States in the
late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
B. Urban Middle-Class Reformers and Muckrakers
The new middle class formed the vanguard of the Progressive movement.
Journalists, called “muckrakers,” raised interest in reform, particularly among
urban Americans. Many people, opposed to political parties and bosses,
advocated initiative, referendum, and recall.
C. Upper?Class Reformers
Some businessmen supported limited political and economic reform to protect
themselves from radical changes. Elite women encouraged social reform.
D. Working?Class Reformers
The working class pushed for labor and safety reform, and inner?city voters
elected Progressive legislators.
E. Socialists
Some workers who wanted substantive changes in society turned to
F. Opponents of Progressivism
Many politicians and capitalists opposed Progressivism as too much
government interference in the free market.
III. Governmental and Legislative Reform
A. Restructuring Government
Most Progressives believed that government should be the guardians of the
people. Although reformers first tried to eliminate corruption from government
at the city level, they began to shift their attention to the state level.
B. Robert M. LaFollette
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