01:119:115 Lecture Notes - Meiosis, Birth Weight, Dark Skin

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19 evolution 2 -- population genetics & microevolution. Evolution is a process of adaptation to the environment. Natural selection acting on variation (preserving if beneficial, removing if detrimental) is the means by which this adaptation occurs. How do populations evolve: variation is the raw material" for selection. Scales of evolution: microevolution: short-term, small-scale changes, below species level populations; result of a change in gene frequency, macroevolution: long-term, large-scale changes above the species level. Population: all individuals of the same species in a particular area at the same time. Gene pool: sum of all alleles of all genes in a population. Frequency of genotypes and alleles are stable --> genetic equilibrium. Ex: a = 0. 9 a = 0. 1axa= p^2 = 0. 81. 1 = all the individuals in a population. 2pq, albinism is recessive (q), 1 in 20. 000 are albinos (q^2) If q^2 = 1/20,000, then q = 1/141. Ex: what proportion of mouse population will have white coats if:

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