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Lecture 1

01:119:115 Lecture 1: Lecture 1

Biological Science
Course Code
Professor Cardinale

of 4
Lecture #1
Course Description
I. Course Overview
Lecturer: Dr. Daniel Stern Cardinale.
Office: Room 106A
Biological Sciences Building (BIO)
Douglass Campus.
Office Hours: 3 hours/week.
Walk-In Hours: Tuesday (BIO 104): 1:30 p.m. - 2:30 p.m.
Thursday (BIO 104): 1:30 p.m. - 2:30 p.m.
By Appointment: Friday (BIO 106A).
Office Telephone: (848)-932-1106.
Textbook: Campbell Biology Tenth Edition.
II. How to Prepare for Class
Skim sections.
Create brief outlines of main points.
Read sections of which you have questions.
III. Course Policies.
Be professional: no cellphones!
Check SAKAI daily!
IV. Examinations
Two Midterm Exams: 70 Multiple Choice Questions.
Midterm Exam #1: Sunday, October 11th, 2015, from 3:00 p.m. - 4:20 p.m.
Midterm Exam #2: Sunday, November 15th, 2015, from 3:00 p.m. - 4:20 p.m.
Final Exam: 140 Multiple Choice Questions.
Saturday, December 19th, 2015.
V. Workshops
40% of grade (mandatory).
Take notes in lecture and have them tangible in workshop.
VI. Key to Notes (Bioetymologies (on Sakai))
Red and Bold: Definitely know what it is.
Listen and paraphrase (figures will be labeled as section from book).
Suggested to take notes by hand (so that you do not write everything and actually listen).
VII. Grading
Midterm Exam 1: 15%
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Midterm Exam 2: 15%
Final Exam: 30%
Workshop: 40%
Deportment: 8%
Quizzes: 14%
Workshop Activities: 18%
Total: 100%
Lecture #1
The Brain and the Nervous System (Concepts 49.1 and 49.4)
I. Concept 49.1: The Nervous System
Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons and support cells (Figure 49.3).
Embryonic development.
The nervous system is established.
II.Concept 49.4: Changes in Synaptic Connections Underlie Memory and Learning
Neuronal plasticity.
Ability of nervous system to be modified after birth.
Brain is dynamic and changeable.
Synapses (use it or lose it).
High activity -> Many connections (vice versa).
Multiple active synapses -> Stronger responses at all synapses.
Individuals impaired (especially in terms of communication).
Description in activity-dependent remodeling at synapses.
Physiological/anatomical at synapses.
Dependent on neuronal plasticity and activity.
Short-Term: Limited, temporary storage of information in memory.
Long-Term: Unlimited, permanent, but problems retrieving.
Using memory to prevent negative impact.
Use memories to solve problems.
Improve ability to form memories.
Achieve encoding.
Transfer from short-term to long-term.
LTP (long term potentiation).
Activity dependent.
Use of information = Sorting process.
Use -> Important -> Retained.
Not Used -> Not important -> Discarded (no new synapses).
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Study Process: Lecture/Notes -> Plan/Strategize -> Practice.
Workshops: Flow charts/activities to retrieve on exams.
Meaningful associations aid in memory formation.
Chunking- Learning sets of related information.
III.Applying What We Learned to Studying Methods
Lower Level: #1 Recall single fact.
#2 Recall several facts.
Upper Level: #3 Integrated understanding.
#4 Novel situations (examples).
Exam ready?
Strengthen connections in memory.
Correct and refine.
Lecture #1
Interrelatedness and Emergence (Concepts 1.1)
I. Concept 1.1: The Study of Life Reveals Common Themes
5 unifying themes.
Energy and matter.
Evolution accounts for unity and diversity of life.
All living organisms are modified descendants of common ancestors.
Diversity of life.
1.8 million species identified.
Thousands more identified each year (more species).
10 million - 100 million actually on Earth.
Some are unknown and some debates go on about what a species actually is, so they
are not identified.
Emergent properties.
Emergence- The idea that whole is more than the sum of its parts.
Emergent properties result from the arrangement and interactions of parts within a
Examples: Memory emerges from physics, chemistry, and all biology of a synapse.
Bicycle (separated they are not working together any way that you put it).
Life studied at different levels (new properties emerge at successive levels).
Molecules -> Entire planet.
Can be divided into different levels of biological organizations.
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