27. 3: capsules and slime layers (chacteristics of prokaryotes, surround cell well, comprised of polysaccharides or proteins, provide protection against phagocytosis, fig. 27. 6: hair-like appendages, fimbriae shorter and more numerous than pili, generally used for attachments (substrates / cells, endospores, particular phase of a bacterial cell, dormant stage, fig. Motility: taxis, refers to the directed movement in response to a stimulus, positive taxis towards stimulus, negative taxis away from stimulus (a toxin, ex. Chemotaxis: in response to a particular chemical in the environment, flagella (most bacteria have this, common motility structure, find them in bacteria, archaea, + eukarya, comparison of prokar. + eukar: prokaryotes 1/10 as wide as euk, not covered by plasma membrane, prok + euk. Reproduction: undergo binary fission, start with 1 cell, split into 2, under optimal conditions, can divide 1-3 hours, fig. Genetic diversity in prokaryotes: rapid reproduction and mutation, recall in sexually reproducing population, genetic variation results from meiosis and fertilization, ex.