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GENERAL BIOLOGY Notes (Part 12) - 4.0ed the course!

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
01:119:115
Professor
A L L
Semester
Fall

Description
Darwin 11/12/2013 There is unity in diversity of life Evolution Change in genetic composition of a population from generation to generation Both pattern and process Pattern in nature is “descent w/ modification” The idea that contemporary species arose from a succession of ancestors that were different Natural selection – evolutionary mechanism responsible for descent w/ modification Individuals with certain inherited traits to survive + reproduce at higher rates than other individuals b/c of  their traits Charles Darwin (1809­1882) – first to propose descent w/ modification by process of natural selection Pre­Darwinian Species are fixed + unchanging Aristotle Certain similarities b/w species Species are fixed/unchanging Scala naturae – “scale of nature” Simple ▯ complex Carolus Linneaus (1707­1778) Classify organisms based on pattern of their creation Struggle for existence was part of Divine Order Nested order of classification, not ladder­like Aristotle His system is still used today Figure 1.12 Domain ▯ Kingdom ▯ Phylum ▯ Class ▯ Order ▯ Family ▯ Genus ▯ Species Georges Covier (1769­1832) Father of paleontology (study of fossils) Fossils are found in sedimentary rock layers (strata) Noted some new species appear, others disappear in layers b/c of catastrophic events (floods) Formalized Theory of Catastrophism James Hutton (1726­1797) Helped establish earth was older than biblical accounts Erosion + sedimentation explain history of earth better Earth’s geological features are result of gradual mechanisms Proposed Theory of Gradualism Charles Lyell (1797­1875) Refined Hutton’s ideas Same geological processes are the same, uniform over time Processes are not due to supernatural catastrophic events Proposed Theory of Uniformitarianism Published “Principles of Geology” in 1833 Jean Baptiste de Lamark (1744­1829) One of first to propose species change over time When environment changes, organism change to survive Changes acquired over life were inherited by offspring Ex: giraffe + neck Darwin’s theory of evolution through natural selection Observed + studied adaptations in species Inherited characteristics that enhance survival + reproduction in specific environments Explained that adaptations arise b/c of process of natural selection Collected + cataloged 1000s of plants + animals Ex: beak size in Galapagos finches (Darwin’s finche
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