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Lecture 5

01:119:131 Lecture 5: Lecture 5 (2.1.17)

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Rutgers University
Biological Sciences

I. Summary A. C6H12O6+6O2 → 6CO2+38 ATP B. Glycolysis 2(NADH) * 3 = 6 ATP B.1. Net ATP of 2 C. Krebs Cycle 8(NADH)*3=24 ATP C.1. 2(FADH2)*2=4 ATP D. Net ATP GTP → 2 ATP E. Total: 38 ATP! II. Aerobic metabolism: respiration A. Krebs cycle: metabolizes two-carbon units called acetyl groups to CO2 and H2O B. Doorways into krebs cycle: pyruvate loses a molecule of CO2 and oxidized by NAD, resulting two carbon acetyl group is attached to coenzyme A, forming Acetyl CoA B.1. C. Biology C.1. Acetyl CoA(2C) + Oxaloacetate (4C) C.2. Citrate (6C) C.2.a) Release Acetyl CoA C.2.b) Isocitrate (6C) C.3. Alpha-ketoglutarate (5C) C.3.a) NAD+ → NADH C.3.b) Release CO2 C.4. Succinyl CoA (4C) C.4.a) NAD+ → NADH C.4.b) Release CO2 C.5. Succinic acid (4C) C.5.a) ADP→ ATP(GTP) C.5.b) From H2O coenzyme A C.6. Fumarate (4C) C.6.a) FAD+ → FADH2 C.7. Malate → goes back to 1st step C.7.a) H2O in C.7.b) NAD+ → NADH C.8. Step 1 C.9. 1 glucose= 2 cycles C.9.a) No ATP usage C.9.b) Produces 4 CO2, 6NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP C.9.c) Glucose is completely oxidized! C.10. Overall: 4 ATP, all glucose E is stored in NADH and FADH2 to be used in ETC D. III. Electron Transport Chain- like a waterfull, as e- are passed from carrier to carrier in the chain, decrease in energy and some energy they lose is harnessed to make ATP A. Electron transport- process leading to the transfer of electrons from substrate to O2, begins during one of the energy releasing dehydrogenation reactions of catabolism A.1. 2 H atoms are transferred to NAD, forming reduced NAD A.2. Resulting compound in turn transfers the pairs of atoms to one of a series of other carrier compounds embedded in the cell membrane of the bacteria or the inner membrane of the mitochondria B. ETC- series of redox reactions that performs two functions: B.1. Accept e- from e- donor, transfer to e- accept B.2. Conserving for ATP synthesis some of the energy released during the energy transfer B.3. High energy → low B.4. B.5. B.5.a) Higher you enter waterfall ETC more energy you let out B.5.b) E- and H from NADH are passed to the ETC at a higher entry point (energy level) and 3 ATP molecules are produced from 1 NADH molecule B.5.c) FADH2 passes its hydrogens to the ETC at a lower point (energy level) so only 2 ATP molecules are produced
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