11:216:101 Lecture 7: Science 2/16

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Rutgers University
Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources
S Sukhdeo

E.coli -> digest maltose = MUTATION Non-convergent each e.coli had different mutations to digest maltose instead of glucose Oct 2016 Birds in Andes Mountain Many species adapted to low oxygen levels due to high mountain altitude All of high altitude species had different mutations in hemoglobin (birds’ oxygen in red blood cells) Non-convergent: they all came up with different solutions to oxygen levels If they all had the same mutation: Convergent Evolution I.e. wings; bats, insects, birds, 1988->2003 (15 years later) Grad student noticed some of the flasks become cloudy (turgid) Contamination made him restart all the flasks from that generation Same conclusion, some of the flasks became turgid Go back to before the day the flasks started turgid went back 72 flasks and 4 were turgid over and over again MUTATION: e.coli on its own managed to eat a new food source; Citrate (salt) Flasks are filled with many ingredients (Chemicals) citrate is essential for metabolic activity of E.coli Flasks eat once a day at 8am Glucose Mutation not a mutation in a gene, mutation = extra copy of a gene Too many copies of a gene forms mutation i.e cancer Extra copy of citrate transport in gene allows citrate to become a food source 2. Dr. Travisano- University of Minnesota How did organisms go from being unicellular t
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