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Lecture 12

01:830:338 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Field Dependence, Social Learning Theory, Human Nature

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Professor Lyra Stein

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Chapter 12
Cognitive Topics in Personality
Chapter Outline
Cognitive approaches to personality focus on differences in how people process
Cognition refers to awareness and thinking as well as to specific mental acts such as
perceiving, interpreting, remembering, believing, anticipating
Three levels of cognition of interest to personality psychologists
Perception: Process of imposing order on information received by our sense
Interpretation: Process of making sense of, or explaining, events in the world
Beliefs and desires: Standards and goals people develop for evaluating
themselves and others
Fourth cognitive domain of interest: Intelligence
Personality Revealed Through Perception
Field Dependence-Independence
Field independent (relative to field dependent) people have the ability to focus
on details despite the clutter of background information
Measures used to assess field-dependence
Rod and Frame Test (RFT)
Embedded Figures Test (EFT)
Field dependence-independence and life choices
Education: Field independent people favor natural sciences, math,
engineering, whereas field dependent people favor social sciences and
Interpersonal relations: Field independent people are more
interpersonally detached, whereas field dependent people are attentive
to social cues, oriented toward other people
Current research on field dependence-independence
Field independent people are better able to screen out distracting
information and focus on a task
Field-independent students learn more effectively than field dependent
students in hypermedia-based instructional environment
Pain Tolerance and Sensory Reducing/Augmenting
Aneseth Petrie’s reducer-augmenter theory of pain tolerance
People with low pain tolerance have a nervous system that is amplified
or augmented by subjective impact of sensory input
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