01:840:211 Lecture Notes - Lecture 27: Mandate Of Heaven, Cinnabar, Citta
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- external alchemy: compounding and ingesting “divine elixirs” produced from mineral
compounds like gold and cinnabar; the use of talismans and magical substances and
- inner alchemy: meditation, breathing exercises, diet
- Di was replaced by Tian (, “Heaven”) as the highest deity in Zhou Dynasty. However,
Kongzi believed in Heaven (tian
) and suggested that sociopolitical systems should reflect
the cosmic order of the Dao.
Mandate of heaven:
- Early Zhou (and later Chinese) rulers were styled as “sons of Heaven” who ruled by the
“Mandate of Heaven” (tianming). Wordly power was authorized was legitimated by the
mandate. Legitimate kingship is a result of the Mandate of Heaven
- messages of command intended to be read by spirits but not by ordinary mortals.
Talismanic writing resembles Chinese characters but is not Chinese. Talismans could be
inscribed on objects to empower them.
Four Sprouts of Virtue: heart/mind xin
1. Goodness, benevolence (ren ): having compassion for others
2. Righteousness (yi ): integrity, doing what is virtuous at all costs
3. Ritual/propriety (li ): expressing deference towards others and the socio-religious order
4. Wisdom (zhi ): understanding, recognizing virtue
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