EXSC 224 Lecture 2: Chapter 12

45 views11 pages

For unlimited access to Class Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

SECONDARY BRAIN VESICLES
Telencephalon
o Cerebrum: cerebral hemispheres (cortex, white matter, basal nuclei)
o Lateral ventricles
Diencephalon
o Thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, retina
o Third ventricle
Mesencephalon
o Brain stem: midbrain
o Cerebral aqueduct
Carries water between third and fourth ventricles
Metencephalon
o Brain stem: pons
o Cerebellum
o Fourth ventricle
Myelencephalon
o Brain stem: medulla oblongata
o Fourth ventricle
Spinal cord associated with central canal
SPACE RESTRICTION AND BRAIN DEVELOPMENT
Brain grows so fast that it outpaces amount of space it has to grow
As a result, the brain folds
Folding looks random, but it isn't
GRAY AND WHITE MATTER
Gray matter= neuron cell bodies
o Cortex over cerebrum and cerebellum and central portion of spinal cord
o Forms nuclei deep within brain
White matter= bundles of axons
o Forms tracts that connect parts of brain
o Ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord
VENTRICLES OF THE BRAIN
Fluid-containing system
Lateral ventricle, third ventricles, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle
Connected to one another and to central canal of spinal cord
Lined by ependymal cells
Contain CSF
Lateral aperture and median aperture are associated w/ fourth ventricle
o Allows CSF to leave ventricles and surround the brain
CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE
Frontal lobe
o Newest lobe of the brain
o Central sulcus separates it from parietal love
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Parietal lobe
o Parieto-occipital sulcus (on medial surface of hemisphere)
o Lateral sulcus
Occipital lobe
Temporal lobe
Insula
o Underneath temporal lobe
FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF CEREBRAL CORTEX
3 types of functional areas:
o Motor areas- control voluntary movement
o Sensory areas- conscious awareness of sensation
o Association areas- integrate diverse information
Conscious behavior involves entire cortex
MOTOR AREAS WITHIN THE FRONTAL LOBE
In frontal lobe, there's cognitive function and motor function
NO SENSORY IN FRONTAL LOBE
Primary motor cortex
o Large pyramidal cells of the precentral gyri
o Long axons --> pyramidal (corticospinal) tracts
o Allows conscious control of precise, skilled, voluntary movements
o Motor homunculi= upside-down caricatures representing the motor
innervation of body regions
Medial inferior moves your toes
Medial superior moves your knee
Curve around median moves upper thigh, butt
Superior: fingers, hands, wrist, elbows, arm, shoulder
Lateral: thumb, neck, brows, eyes, face, lips
Lateral inferior: jaw, tongue, swallowing
Premotor cortex:
o This is where you plan out motor patterns
o Teaches you to write and throw a ball
o Anterior to precentral gyrus
o Controls learned, repetitious, or patterned motor skills
o Coordinates simultaneous or sequential actions
o Involved in planning of movements that depend on sensory feedback
Frontal eye field:
o Moves your eye
Broca's area
o Area for speech
o Not necessary to process speech, only TO speak
o Only on one side of brain
90% of people have it on their left side
For left-handed people, it's on the right
o Anterior to inferior region of premotor area
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o Directs muscles of the tongue
o Active as you prepare to speak
SENSORY AREAS IN THE PARIETAL LOBE
Primary somatosensory cortex
o In the postcentral gyri
o Receives sensory info from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints
o Capable of spatial discrimination: identification of body region being
stimulated
o This area also has homunculus map
Somatosensory association cortex
o Posterior to primary somatosensory cortex
o Integrates sensory input from primary somatosensory cortex
o Determines size, texture, and relationship of parts of objects being felt
VISUAL AREAS OF OCCIPITAL LOVE
Primary visual cortex
o Receives visual information from the retinas
Visual association area
o Surrounds the primary visual cortex
o Uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli (eg. Color, form, and
movement)
o Complex processing involves entire posterior half of hemispheres
AUDITORY AREAS OF THE TEMPORAL LOBE
Primary auditory cortex
o Interprets info from inner ear as pitch, loudness, and location
Auditory association area
o Stores memories of sounds and permits perception of sounds
Olfactory cortex
o Medial aspect of temporal lobes (in piriform lobes)
o Region of conscious awareness of odors
Insula is associated with visceral organs (primarily digestive tract)
o Controls taste as well as hunger
MULTIMODAL ASSOCIATION AREAS
Receive input from multiple sensory areas
Send output to multiple areas, including premotor cortex
Allow us to give meaning to info received, store it as memory, compare it to
previous experience, and decide on action to take
3 parts:
1. Anterior association area (prefrontal cortex)
2. Posterior association area
3. Limbic association area
ANTERIOR ASSOCIATION AREA
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class