Class Notes (978,127)
US (384,643)
USC (757)
POLI (58)
POLI 360 (18)
Darmofal (18)
Lecture 2

POLI 360 Lecture 2: POLI 360 - Lecture 2
Premium

5 Pages
81 Views
Spring 2016

Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLI 360
Professor
Darmofal
Lecture
2

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
POLI 360 – Lecture 2
Calculus of Voting (Riker and Ordeshook, 1968) Continued
If citizens behave logically (ex. engage in behavior that’s benefits outweigh its costs),
then they should only vote if they have clear rewards from voting (ex. if R is positive).
This analysis only examines the empirical standpoint, not the normative standpoint.
R will not be positive for most citizens since PB is almost equal to 0, and C is usually
bigger than D.
It is, however, in the candidates’ benefits to convince their followers to vote and to create
positive rewards for their supporters. Parties allow candidates to do this by influencing
costs and benefits of voting.
Essentially, the calculus of voting leads to parties, which then influence costs and benefits
to get elites elected.
Parties mobilize their supporters by reducing their costs of voting (C). For example, “get
out the vote” efforts decrease supporters’ costs of transportation. Additionally, party
advertising decreases supporters’ costs of gathering information. For instance, parties
could provide supporters with basic campaign platforms for their candidates as well as
locations of local polling places.
Parties also rally their followers by increasing their psychological benefits (D). For
example, party rallies and conventions increase supporters’ attachments to the party and
the party’s candidates. Parties also seek to paint the opposition party in the worst possible
light.
Issue Ownership Issue: the idea that certain parties “own” certain issues. For example,
Republicans “own” taxes and foreign policy. Parties diminish issues that their opposing
party owns as well. For example, George W. Bush ran on the No Child Left Behind Act in
2001, reducing differences in educational policy between Republicans and Democrats.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Ideally, Republicans believed that this would reduce Democratic motivation to vote since
both parties appeared to have the same positive stance on education.
Aldrich argues that elites create parties to solve problems of ambition, social choice, and
collective action.
A critique of Aldrich’s work is that it is too fixated on political elites and reduces citizens’
interests generating parties.
Parties and Citizens’ Needs
Parties serve three principle interests of citizens: they make voting easier, they inform
citizens, and they connect citizens to their government.
Informing Citizens
oStudies show that citizens pay slight attention to politics and do not know many
particulars about politics. This is not surprising, given the numerous strains on
citizens’ time.
oParties offer information shortcuts to aid citizens’ decision making. These
shortcuts pose no negative consequences for society, since shortcuts and “long-
cuts” offer the same outcome, and citizens have the opportunity to save time as
well.
oCitizens know what parties stand for, so they can follow a simple party label and
still vote for their interests. Essentially, citizens do not need to know specific
candidates’ policy stances in order to vote.
oBy following prompts from party elites they trust, citizens can make effective
policy choices despite their absence of understanding. Some people, however,
follow this party label blindly and may accidentally vote for policies and
candidates that they do not agree with; these cues merely come with a trade-off.
Connecting Citizens to Government
oParties have motivation to pay attention to their supporters’ understandings.
oElected officials, candidates, party activists, and party leaders all pay attention to
followers’ preferences.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
POLI 360 – Lecture 2 Calculus of Voting (Riker and Ordeshook, 1968) Continued  If citizens behave logically (ex. engage in behavior that’s benefits outweigh its costs), then they should only vote if they have clear rewards from voting (ex. if R is positive). This analysis only examines the empirical standpoint, not the normative standpoint.  R will not be positive for most citizens since PB is almost equal to 0, and C is usually bigger than D.  It is, however, in the candidates’ benefits to convince their followers to vote and to create positive rewards for their supporters. Parties allow candidates to do this by influencing costs and benefits of voting.  Essentially, the calculus of voting leads to parties, which then influence costs and benefits to get elites elected.  Parties mobilize their supporters by reducing their costs of voting (C). For example, “get out the vote” efforts decrease supporters’ costs of transportation. Additionally, party advertising decreases supporters’ costs of gathering information. For instance, parties could provide supporters with basic campaign platforms for their candidates as well as locations of local polling places.  Parties also rally their followers by increasing their psychological benefits (D). For example, party rallies and conventions increase supporters’ attachments to the party and the party’s candidates. Parties also seek to paint the opposition party in the worst possible light.  Issue Ownership Issue: the idea that certain parties “own” certain issues. For example, Republicans “own” taxes and foreign policy. Parties diminish issues that their opposing party owns as well. For example, George W. Bush ran on the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, reducing differences in educational policy between Republicans and Democrats. Ideally, Republicans believed that this would reduce Democratic motivation to vote since both parties appeared to have the same positive stance on education.  Aldrich argues that elites create parties to solve problems of ambition, social choice, and collective action.  A critique of Aldrich’s work is that it is too fixated on political elites and reduces citizens’ interests generating parties. Parties and Citizens’ Needs  Parties serve three principle interests of citizens: they make voting easier, they inform citizens, and they connect citizens to their government.  Informing Citizens o Studies show that citizens pay slight attention to politics and do not know many particulars about politics. This is not surprising, given the numerous strains on citizens’ time. o Parties offer information shortcuts to aid citizens’ decision making. These shortcuts pose no negative consequences for society, since shortcuts and “long- cuts” offer the same outcome, and citizens have the opportunity to save time as well. o Citizens know what parties stand for, so they can follow a simple party label and still vote for their interests. Essentially, citizens do not need to know specific candidates’ policy stances in order to vote.
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

You've reached the limit of 4 previews this month

Create an account for unlimited previews.

Already have an account?

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit