BIOL 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Salivary Gland, Cnidaria, Ulna

48 views19 pages
16 Jan 2018
School
Course
Professor
Unit 1 Notes
Taxonomy, Evolution, Origin of Life, Viruses,
Prions, Kingdom Monera, Survey of Bacteria,
Kingdom Protista
June 26, 2017
Taxonomy
o Aristotle
Father of the biological sciences (natural history)
Made study of life scientific
First taxonomic system
Taxonomy- provides a means of scientifically organizing living things so
that they may be analyzed and studied
Plants
o Trees
o Shrubs
o Herbs
Animals
o Air-dwellers
o Water-dwellers
o Land-dwellers
Flawed because scientifically valid characteristics were not used to
determine categories
o Linnaeus (late 1600s- early 1700s)
Father of modern taxonomy
System still used today
Eliminated use of common names
Used Latin as basis of nomenclature
Created binomial nomenclature
o Identifies each organism by their Genus and species (ex. Homo
sapiens)
Genus is capitalized
Species is NOT capitalized
Made things uniform across languages
Created other taxa for classification purposes
Domain kingdom phylum class order family genus
species
o Domains came later (originally started at kingdom)
Used morphological characteristics as basis for classification
Morphology- study of the form and structure of a living thing
~ 1.5 million species identified using this system
o Modern Taxonomic Concepts
3 domains of life
Bacteria
o Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
o Carbon-eating heterotrophic bacteria
Archaea
o Salt-loving microbes (halophiles)
o Heat-loving microbes (thermophiles)
Eukaryota
o Consists of 5 major kingdoms
Monera
Protista
Fungi
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 19 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Plantae
Animalia
Kingdom
Major Examples
Cell Type
# of Cells
Nutrition
Monera
Bacteria
Prokaryotic- no
membrane
bound organelles
Unicellular
Heterotrophic-
carbon source is
complex (carbs,
proteins, lipids)
Cyanobacteria
Prokaryotic
Unicellular,
Colonial
Autotrophic-
carbon source is
simple (ex. CO2)
Protista
Protozoa
Eukaryotic- have
membrane
bound organelles
Unicellular
Heterotrophic
Algae
Eukaryotic
Unicellular,
Colonial
Autotrophic
Seaweeds
Eukaryotic
Multicellular
Autotrophic
Fungi
Mushrooms
Eukaryotic
Multicellular
Heterotrophic
Yeasts
Eukaryotic
Unicellular
Heterotrophic
Plantae
Plants (Mosses,
Liverworts, Ferns,
Gymnosperms,
Angiosperms)
Eukaryotic
Multicellular
Autotrophic
Animalia
Animals
(Sponges,
Cnidaria, Worms,
Mollusks,
Arthropods,
Echinoderms,
Chordates)
Eukaryotic
Multicellular
Heterotrophic
Phylogeny- the evolutionary history of an organism
Origin of Life, Charles Darwin (1859)
Natural Selection (Darwin 1859)
Populations tend to exhibit exponential growth (given good conditions)
o There is tremendous potential in nature for overproduction of
offspring
Resources need for survival are limited in natureleads to struggle for
survival
Individuals within populations vary
o Some variations are more or less advantageous
Individuals with best combination of characteristics will survive
o Survival of the fittest
Survivors will have the opportunity to reproduce and pass on
advantageous characteristics
Evidence for Evolution
o Fossil record
Petrified remains
Organisms trapped in
Amber
Tar pits
Ice
Sedimentary rock
Acidic bogs- prevents decomposition, skin becomes leathery
Casts
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 19 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Easier to form fossils with hard body parts as opposed to soft
o Biogeography of distribution patterns of organisms
o Taxonomy
Classification that implies descent
o Comparative anatomy
Homologous organs and structures- similar in structure and origindifferent in
function
Ex. arm of human, cat, whale, bat are all similar in structure (all have
phalanges, carpals, radius, ulna)
Vestigial structures- have no use for (ex. appendix, tonsils, wisdom teeth)
o Comparative embryology
All vertebrates go through stage with tail and gills
o Molecular biology
o Domestication (artificial selection)- desired traits are selected
Analogous structures vs. homologous structures
Homologous- similar in structure and origin, different in function
o Strongly supports common ancestor
Analogous- similar in function, different in structure and origin
o Generally not useful in supporting evolution
Cladistics- an approach to classification in which organisms are placed in groups
called “clades” based on common descent
Has been determined by organisms possessing similar characteristics
Origin of Life on Earth
o Important dates in geological time
4.6 BYA = Earth forms
4.0-3 BYA = Origin of life
3.5 BYA = Oldest prokaryotic organisms
1.5 BYA = Earliest eukaryotic organisms
0.5 BYA = Earliest animals
o How did life originate?
1862
Pasteur (France) disproves belief in Spontaneous Generation (life could
come from non-life)
o Even the simplest organisms are coming from their own chime
o Broth experiments with S shaped tube on flask
1920
Oparin (Russia) theorizes about early atmosphere on earth
o Believed consisted of H2O, H2, CH4, NH3,
o No oxygen
o 4 essential elements in biochemistry and was a reducing
atmosphere that would favor the formation of more complex
molecules (carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) used to form
first cells
Oparin-Haldane Theory
o Haldane soup simple molecules complex molecules
(building blocks) aggregates (coacervates and microspheres)
protocells (proprimitive stage before formation of true cell)
proto cells + nucleic acid = self replicating system cell
1953
Miller (USA) performed experiments to test Oparin’s atmospheric
conditions
o Discovered was conducive to formation of carbs, proteins, lipids,
nucleic acids
New evidence
Atmosphere was neutral (neither oxidizing or reducing)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 19 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
Monthly
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.