Anatomy Notes Sept 26
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 065
Professor
Dr.Joanne Kerr
Semester
Fall

Description
The Urinary System 1. Components a. Two kidneys b. Two ureters c. One urinary bladder d. one urethra 2. Functions a. remove excess salt, water, adjust pH of blood, and has relationship with blood pressure b. Filters out blood and make urine 3. Development a. Kidneys first appear at 3 weeks b. Pronephros i. kidneys that form in the neck c. Mesonephros i. kidneys that form in the chest ii. disappears later on d. Metanephros i. kidneys form in the pelvis ii. happens during the 5th week iii. Ascends to the abdominal wall. Right kidney is stopped at the liver and left kidney is stopped by the spleen. e. Kidneys have 3 interlobar arteries (lobes) f. kidneys are lumpy during development 4. Developmental Abnormalities a. Ectopic Kidney i. out of place kidney b. Ectopic Pelvic Kidney i. kidney stays in pelvis after birth ii. no difficulties c. Kidneys merged together i. shaped like a C or horse shoe. ii. Will get caught up in blood vessels when ascending by superior mesenteric arteries iii. No difficulties d. Multiple Renal Arteries and Fetal Lobulation i. Lumpy kidneys e. Duplicated/Bifid Ureters i. having more than 1 ureter to each kidney 5. Kidneys a. Retroperitoneal i. behind abdominal organs ii. very deep in the body iii. Posterior to stomach, intestines, etc. b. Left Kidney higher than Right kidney due to liver on the right side c. Renal Hilus i. recessed central fissure where its vessels, nerves, and ureter pass d. Superficial to Deep i. Perirenal fat (around fat) 1. fat is around each kidney to provide protection against trauma ii. Renal Capsule iii. Kidney Proper - outer Cortex and inner Medulla e. Kidney Blood Supply i. Renal arteries from the Abdominal aorta ii. Renal veins to the Inferior Vena Cava f. Three Major Regions of Kidney i. Cortex 1. outside zone of organ, very thick, very bright, filled with blood. ii. Medulla 1. white-zone, plumbing, leads to ureters iii. Renal Pelvis 1. collects all the urine, middle of medulla, shaped like a pelvis. g. Cancer of Kidney i. Primary - cancer started in kidney ii. Secondary - cancer started elsewhere and reached kidney 6. Microscopic Anatomy a. 1 million Nephrons per Kidney b. Nephron i. microscopic units in kidney ii. filters the blood, remove salt, water, adjust pH, forms urine. c. Components of Nephron i. Glomerulus 1. tuft of capillaries 2. Looks like a ball of yarn under microscope 3. Where the blood is filtered ii. Glomerular (Bowman's Capsule) iii. Vascular and Urinary poles 1. Vascular pole - where all blood vessels are found iv. Tubules 1. Proximal Convoluted Tubule 2. Loop of Henle 3. Distal Convoluted Tublue 4. Collecting Ducts d. Flow of Blood i. Every time the heart beats -> sends 20-25% of blood to liver to filter ii. 1 liter/minute = 20% of total blood volume 7. Clinical Considerations a. Intravenous Pyelograms b. Tuberculosis in the Kidneys i. Tuberculosis is bacterial and starts in the lung ii. Lungs send blood to heart and heart se
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