BIO 203 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Axon Hillock, Sciatic Nerve, Basal Ganglia

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Lecture'13:'Nervous'System'(CNS)'
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1.#Map#the#organization#of#the#nervous#system.##
!!neuron:"individual"cell"
!!nerve:"bundles"of"neuron"axons"(mostly)"in"PNS"
o!sensory"nerves,"motor"nerves"(bundles"of"motor"axons),"mixed"nerves"(bundles"of"both)"
o!i.e."sciatic"nerve:"longest"nerve"in"humans"
"!includes"both"motor"axons"(efferent"information)"and"sensory"axons"(send"sensory"into"back"to"
the"spinal"cord)"
!!tract:"bundles"of"neuron"axons"entirely"in"the"CNS"(brain/spinal"cord!)"
o!i.e."corticospinal"tract:"major"tract"involved"in"voluntary"motor"control"
"!start"w/"cells"that"begin"in"motor"cortex"
"!all"in"a"bundle"
!!ganglion/ganglia:"clusters"of"neuron"cell"bodies"in"PNS"
o!exception:"basal"ganglia"(in"CNS/brain)"
!!nucleus/nuclei:"clusters"of"neuron"cell"bodies"in"CNS"
!!Regions"of"CNS"#"the"CNS"has"lighter/darker"areas"in"specific"regions"
o!white#matter:"axon"tracts""
"!lighter"due"to"myelin,"which"is"white"
o!grey#matter:"cell"bodies/synapses"(lack"myelin)"
"!area"where"we"have"cellFcell"communication"going"on""
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2.#Describe#the#anatomy#and#function(s)#of#different#classes#of#neurons#and#glial#cells.##
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Neuron#Anatomy#–#Parts#of#a#Neuron#
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Dendrites:"branch"off"of"cell"body"
Axon#hillock:"area"where"AP"is"triggered"
Synapse:"formed"w/"another"cell"(postsynaptic"cell)"
!!axon"terminal"bouton"of"presynaptic"cell"and"dendrites/cell"body"of"postsynaptic"cell""
Other#notes:#
!!summation"of"graded"potentials"that"reached"threshold"at"the"axon"hillock"#"fires"AP"down"the"axon"#
!!not"all"neurons"look"like"this"(there"is"variability)#
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Neuron#Anatomy#–#Functional#Categories#
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F"dendrites"–"AP"still"generated"at"
dendrite"
F"cell"body"at"middle"
F"axon"terminal"boutons"
F"DIVERSITY"
"
F"cell"body"at"the"top"
F"collaterals"–"branches"of"
axon"terminals"
F"bouton"at"bottom"
F"sensory"&"motor"neurons"are"found"partly"in"the"CNS"and"MOSTLY"in"PNS,"interneurons"are"entirely"in"CNS"
5'for'sensory'and'motor'neurons,'should'be'able'to'look'at'the'neurons'and'tell'apart'dendrites'and'axon'terminal'&'w/'
info'for'interneurons"
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Glial#Cells#Provide#Support#for#Neurons#
!!Schwann#cells"(PNS)"and"oligodendrocytes"(CNS)"
o!wrap"around"axon"and"form"insulating"myelin"sheaths"
"!Nodes"of"Ranvier"are"gaps"in"insulation"
Peripheral"Nervous"System"(PNS)"
Central"Nervous"System"(CNS)"
!!Satellite#cells"(PNS)"–"nonmyelinating"
Schwann"cell""
o!provide"support"in"PNS"&"muscle"
cells"
"
!!Astrocytes"(CNS)"–"several"subtypes,"multiple"roles"
!!Microglia"(CNS)"–"specialized"immune"cells"
o!involved"with"immune"response"in"CNS"
!!Ependymal#cells"(CNS)"–"one"source"of"neural"stem"cells""
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Myelin#Formation#in#the#Peripheral#Nervous#System#
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Anatomical#Directions#
cephalic/cranial/rostral:"
head"
caudal:"stops"where"tail"
would"be,"i.e."lower"
spine"is"caudal"to"upper"
part"of"spine"
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