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Lecture 21

BIO 201 Lecture 21: April 18, 2017

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Stony Brook University
BIO 201
John Trueand Ross Nehm

April 18, 2017 1) Angiosperm male gametophytes (pollen) a) Most angiosperms rely on the animals to transfer its pollen b) The seeds (baby plant with food endosperm) within the fruit is also dispersed by the animal 2) Dispersal a) The function of fruits is to increase seed dispersal b) Animals can help to disperse angiosperm gametophytes c) Some fruits are dispersed by the wind d) The shapes of seeds can impact dispersal distance 3) Plant form and function: models a) 2 Models of transport in plants: i) TransportationCohesionTension (TCT) (1) Explains how water is transported through plant xylem (2) How is water pumped several stories high? (3) How much energy does the plant use to pump the water? (4) How does the process work, and is it connected in any way to photosynthesis? ii) Pressure Flow Model: (1) Explains how food is translocated in the phloem 4) Evaluating a model a) Good models: i) Account for all data at hand and help us understand a complex system ii) Accurately predict the results of future tests and generate testable hypotheses iii) Be consistent with prior knowledge (build upon what is known; be logically consistent) 5) TCT Model a) Observation: water molecules stick together (cohesion) b) Observation: Sweating cools us off c) Observation: It takes energy to change water from liquid to vapor i) Sweating is important for cooling the body ii) Heat loss from sweating can be around 0.6 kcals for every ml of water evaporated iii) Body heat is used to change water from a liquid to a vapor iv) Energy is needed to move water from a liquid to a vapor d) Question: How do plants survive direct sun? i) Leaf and stem epidermis has a waxy cuticle to minimize water loss, but it also prevents gas exchange ii) Stomata, or pores is the lead epidermis, allow CO to2enter by diffusion, and water and O to 2 exit iii) Guard cells control the opening and closing e) Tubes: Xylem i) Trees are mostly made of xylem f) Solar Panels: Leaves g) Holes: Stomata h) Movement of water i) Evaporation due to sunheat, and less H 2 in atmosphere, drives water movement (energy moving the train) 6) Pressure Flow Model a) Moving food (products of photosynthesis)
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