HIS 104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: W. E. B. Du Bois, National Urban League, Homestead Acts

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African American Responses (2)
1880-1919: 367k migrated by boat
Organization: travelers aid - set up by middle class women
Help them get to the right place
1910-20: about 500k migrated
Unskilled labor, domestic service
WWI demand of factory work → black men ~ afterward lost it
Similar to immigrant experience
Development of urban ghettos
Blockbuster - go to the neighborhoods & scare them into selling houses ~ white ppl felt their homes
were being invaded
Reception: less discrimination, some political participation, also resentment
No air of threat
Profession boxer: Jack Johnson - mann act
Beat white man at match
FBI gave him a choice - prison or another country - chose latter
Civil Rights movement beginnings
Boycotts, strikes in south
North: W.E.B DuBOIS & N.A.A.C.P
Went to Harvard
Public intellectual
Advocate for black rights - esp against lynchings
National boycott of “birth of a nation” 1915
Portrayed at KKK as the rescuers
Urban League,1911
Role of churches
Churches important to blacks
Bishop Alexander
Strategy: try to align w/the democrats ~ unsuccessful
Nationalist: Marcus Garvey
1st to notion that black is beautiful - encourage self respect
Plan to bring blacks back to africa
Start steam ship company
FBI deported him
Closing the Frontier? Frederick J. Turner argument (1893)
Lecture - closing of the frontier
No longer trace the line of frontier
Fur traffic - beaver, buffalo
Mining - gold, silver, copper ~ mountain states
Farming - homesteaders - break prairie soil
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