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Lecture 6

PSY 260 Lecture 6: Chapter 6 Notes

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 260
Professor
Arthur Samuel

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Description
PSY 260, Fall 2015 Chapter 6: Long-Term Memory a) Structure of LTM LTM: an archive of info about past events and things tat we have learned - Differs from STM in its basic properties o Things fade from STM after 20-30 seconds, info in LTM can be permanent b/c unlimited duration o STM can only hold about 4-7 things. LTM can never be filled – unlimited capacity Interactions Between STM and LTM - Chunking: using LTM to increase STM capacity; the “meaning” that is needed to chunk info comes from LTM o All info entering LTM has to go through STM o All info retrieved from LTM has to re-enter STM o STM acts as the “gatekeeper” for LTM – affecting what goes in and out - Maintenance Rehearsal: repeating info during your inner speech in order to maintain it in STM o The longer info is held in STM, the more likely it is to be transferred to LTM - The Serial Position Curve: o Serial Recall Task: subjects presented with a list of items one after the other; then have to recall the items in the order they were presented (Murdoch, 1962) ▪ Presented List: 7 4 3 2 8 6 ▪ Recalled List: 7 4 3 2 8 6 ▪ Presented List: 7 4 3 2 8 6 ▪ Recalled List: 8 2 6 3 7 4 o Plotting the results from a serial recall task gives a serial position curve; plots the probability of correctly recalling an item as a function of its serial position in a list o Primacy Effect: better recall or items presented early in a list (first few list positions) o Recency Effect: better recall for items presented later in a list (last few list positions) o Items in the middle list positions are generally harder to remember What causes primacy and recency? o Primacy: caused by rehearsal moving items from STM to LTM; early list items tend to be rehearsed more than later list items o Recency: is NOT caused by rehearsal; recency is strongest when rehearsal is at its lowest; benefits appear for list items still in STM; items in STM are more likely to be reported, leading to the recency benefit Rundus (1971) - If primacy is due to the umber of rehearsals of an item, there should be more rehearsal for early listed items - He asked subjects to rehearse out loud, and counted the number of times each list word was spoken - Early list items are rehearsed a lot; rehearsal declines with increasing serial positionEvidence that recency effect is due to STM 900 No delay 50 30 30-sec delay eliminates recency effect 13 Serial position LONG-TERM MEMORY EXPLICIT IMPLICIT (conscious) (not conscious) Episodic Semantic Priming Procedural Conditioning (personal facts, memory events) knowledge) (d2011 Cengage earing 15 Evidence that recency effect is due to STM 900 No delay 50 30 30-sec delay eliminates recency effect 13 Serial position LONG-TERM MEMORY EXPLICIT IMPLICIT (conscious) (not conscious) Episodic Semantic Priming Procedural Conditioning (personal facts, memory events) knowledge) (d2011 Cengage earing 15Glanzer & Cunitz (1966): - If recency is due to STM, and STM only lasts a very short time (without rehearsal), then delaying the recall that beyond 30 seconds should reduce recency - A list was presented, then subjects counted backwards by 3s for 30 seconds before reporting the items - When items in STM are caused to fade, recency disappears Amnesia: - Damage to the brain resulting in impaired memory for events occurring either before or after the damage - Retrograde Amnesia: forgetting what was learned BEFORE the event causing the amnesia o A person is hit on the head, then doesn’t remember who they are or events leading up to the trauma - Anterograde Amnesia: forgetting what was learned AFTER the event causing the amnesia o Patient H.M. suffered from anterograde amnesia after the bilateral removal of his hippocampus o H.M. basically lived each day as a “new day”; couldn’t remember learning about events that occurred after his surgery; he couldn’t form new long term memories
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