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Lecture 14

CHE 113 Lecture 14: chapter 14 explosives and arson

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Syracuse University
CHE 113
James Spencer

Chapter 14  Fire o Rapid oxidation of chemicals to release energy (heat, light, noise) o Difference between combustion and explosion is mostly the rate of reaction  Oxidation reactions o The combination of oxygen with other substances to produce new substances o Exothermic reactions (gives off heat) o Involve both oxidation and reduction o Not all oxidation reactions result in flames  Rusting  Metabolism o Transfer of electrons  Gain electrons - reduction  Lose electrons - oxidation o Rate of reaction determines the nature of the reaction o Chemicals that supply oxygen (lost electrons) are known as oxidizing agents  Requirements for combustion o A fuel must be present o Oxygen must be available in sufficient quantity to combine with the fuel o Heat must be applied to initiate the combustion and sufficient heat must be generated to sustain a reaction o Ignition temp is the minimum temperature at which fuel vapor will ignite  Components for combustion o Heat  Auto-ignition temperature  Minimum temperature where a substance will spontaneously ignite without an external ignition  Flash point  Lowest temperature where a fuel will vaporize sufficiently to form an ignitable mixture with air o Fuel  Flammability limits  Air-fuel mixtures beyond these limits, combustion cannot be sustained o Oxygen (oxidizer) o Chain reaction  Spontaneous combustion o A natural heat-producing process that may give rise to a fire in the presence of sufficient air and fuel  Examples  Hay stored in barns growing medium for bacteria which generate heat  Rags soaked with highly unsaturated oils such as linseed oil  Examination of evidence recovered from an arson o Presence of gasoline, kerosene, or turpentine in debris o Liquid gasoline
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