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HTW 303 10.28.13 notes.docx

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Health and Wellness
HTW 303

Traveler’s Health Significance • International travel, increasing through the early years of the 21 century- has leveled off in recent years o 30% of U.S citizens hold passports o of those, about 50% travel to Canada and Mexico o However, travel to areas rarely visited in the past is on the rise • Risk for becoming ill depends on the region of the world visited • Risk for injury exists as well Responsibility • WHO • Federal Gov. • Private Organizations • Health Provider • The Tourist Industry • The Traveler WHO International Health Regulations Responsible for preventing/minimizing the international spread of disease • International Health Regulations (2005) o Legally binding regulations that aim to  Assist countries to work together to save lives and livelihoods endangered by the spread of diseases and other health risks  Avoid unnecessary interference with international travel and travel • Notifiable diseases: cholera, plague, yellow fever Federal Government CDC Traveler’s Health • Standard recommendations for health maintenance and illness prevention among U.S travelers • Surveillance of disease o GeoSentinal Surveillance System Travel Health Notices Notice Level: 1-Watch Action: Reminder to follow usual precautions for this destination Risk: Usual baseline risk or slightly above baseline risk for destination and limited impact to the traveler 2-Alert Action: Follow enhanced precautions for this destination Risk: Increased risk in defined settings or associated with specific risk factors 3-Warning Action: avoid all non-essential travel to this destination Risk: High risk to travelers Private Organizations: The International Society of Travel Medicine • Educational resources • Continuing Education: Certificate of Knowledge in Travel Health • The Journal of Travel Medicine Health Provider • Preventive health care: equipping people with the knowledge that enables them to protect themselves from potential health risks • Pre-Travel Consultation o Travel destination Traveler’s Health o Counseling: Disease and other health risks that may be encountered o Risk reduction strategies o Surveillance: Global TraveEpiNet • Provision of post-travel care • Emerging health specialization: Travel medicine specialists; travel medicine clinic The Travel Industry • Basic information regarding risks related to travel • Referral to a travel medicine clinic The Traveler • Decisional Control: weigh the risks of travel against the benefits of the particular trip • Advance planning to allow for the pre-travel consultation • Prepare and carry a travel health kit • Responsibility for basic health protection Traveler’s Health Kit • Purpose: to allow the traveler to take care of minor health problems as they occur and to treat pre-existing conditions • Specific Contents: based on travel destination • Basic Items: o Personal medications o OTC anti-diarrheal medications o Prescription anti-diarrheal meds o Antihistamine o Pain reliever o OTC antacid o Antibacterial cream o Insect repellent o Sunscreen o Antibacterial hand wipes o Condoms o Address/phone numbers of area hospitals General Safety Recommendations • Routine vaccination • Protection against mosquitoes, ticks, fleas and other insects and arthropods • Food safety • Recreational water safety • Drinking water safety Vaccinationa • Up-to-date on routine immunizations • Recommended vaccinations based on destination • Required vaccinations o Yellow fever o Meningoccal meningitis for SaudiArabia Proection again Mosquitoes, Ticks, Fleas and other Insects andArthropods • Diseases of concern: Yellow Fever & Malaria o Vaccines or chemoprophylactic drugs o However, the effectiveness of malaria medications is variable and for many other vector-borne diseases no specific prevention measures exist o Follow typical practices for protection against vectors o In addition, use bed netting treated with permethrin Food Safety • Street vendor food carrier higher risk • Avoid undercooked and raw meat, fish, shellfish, and eggs • In areas of inadequate hygiene and sanitation, avoid all raw foods and milk products Recreational Water Safety • Do not swim or wade in waters that may be contaminated with human or animal feces • Do not swim or wade during high risk conditions: • Following heavy rainfall • Water sources located near storm drains • Any water in schistosomiasis (parasitic, flat worm) endemic areas of the Caribbean, South America,Africa andAsia • When skin has cuts/scrapes • Chlorinated pools are generally safe if properly maintained • Giardia, Hepatitis A, Norovirus and Cryptosporidium are resistant to chlorine – so swallowing pool (or any) water must be avoided Drinking Water Safety • Chlorinated water sources are safe • If non: all beverages made from water must be boiled, use canned or bottled beverages, no ice Malaria
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