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United States (326,032)
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HIST 0876 (1)

religion in philly.docx

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HIST 0876
David Shulman

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Immigration and religion in America from the colonial period to the present -Migration is to move from one country or region to another and settle -Voluntary- settlers/colonists -Involuntary- slavery -emigration is to leave one country and settle in another -periods of immigration in us history 1770-1860 1776-1800s- more Europeans settlers but belief that many were foreign radicals led to forst migration restrictions: alien and sedition act 1830-1860- Irish Catholics, Germam Catholics and other religion minorities (Lutherans, Mennonites and Amish) 2.4 million immigrants per decade on average. Castle garden, 1855- 1892 first receiving station for newcomers, NY Nativism and intolerance of Catholicism led to the formation in 1850s of a widely popular fraternal order, the order of the star spangled banner which was renamed as a political organization the American Party (but still more often the know nothings) president Millard Fillmore was a member 1880s-present 1880s-1920s southern and eastern Europeans (Italian and Polish Catholics, Jews) some Chinese Japanese Indian middle eastern immigrants 5.2 million immigrants per decade average (8.8 million from 1900-1910) Ellis Island 1892-1954 (federal government assumes responsibility) 1882: Chinese exclusion act first racial group restriction 1924: Johnson reed act congress bars all immigrants except small quota of northern Europeans 1965-present: Asia, Middle East, Latin America, Carribean, Africa. Immigration act of 1965 opens door to all again especially those with skills 1970s: refugees from Vietnam Cambodia Laos during after war 1986: immigration reform and control act passed restrict undocumented immigration 1991: highest number of immigrants 1.8 million a year 1994: proposition 187 attempts to bar illegal aliens from receiving welfare and educational benefits After 9/11 Anti Muslim and Sikh sentiment but actually goes back to Iran hostage crisis of 1980s and Persian gulf war of 1991 WHAT IS AN AMERICAN? Old vs new immigrants Race, ethnicity, religions, class Fitting in Melting pot or mosaic? Assimilation or pluralism? -Philadelphia is considered more violent or less important than other cities such as New York or Chicago -philly is more of an industrial center than other major city counterparts -lack of good scholarship on philly history/religion (slowly changing) EURPOPEAN COLONIALISM -Spanish- first to colonize the Americas -in north america Spanish were committed to securing territory and converting native to Catholicism (Franciscans) in what is now Florida and the southwest (St Augustine 1565; Santa Fe, 1610; etc) -French: established commercial ports along the waterways that conformed to the land (Montreal, new Orleans, etc) and sent Franciscan and Jesuit priests for conversion among Hurons, Algonquins, Iroquois -dutch: dutch west india company purchases island of Manhatta from Lenape Indians for 60 guilders worth of goods -New Amsterdam (1664: British takeover, name changed to NY) British: 1620: Pilgrims settle in Plymouth Colony; 1630 Puritans establish Massachusetts Bay Colony; British later also control 4 other seaports A quick intro to Pluralism -protestant revolution- martin luther (1483-1546) 1517, 95 thesis; Lutheranism centrality of scripture and the word not the pope; importance of faith new focus on individual -John Calvin (1509-1564) reformed church/Calvinism belief in predestination of saints, total depravity of human beings, no ornamentation in church, centrality of preaching and Bible English reformation – in 1559 Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) passes the Elizabethan religious settlement, creating the church of England after henry VIII separates from roman catholic church -renounced papacy, and many medieval devotions while accommodating various Protestant beliefs but still retained many of the sacraments Puritans- Liz didn’t go far enough; the sought to purify the church and create a model religious society focused on doctrine of the covenant (god bad formed a pact with them modeled on biblical covenant Israel) -separatists or dissenters (only route to purity was complete separation from Church of England), included Pilgrims and later Baptists and Quakers -non separatists or nonconformists congregationalists and Presbyterians Religions in colonial Americas: beyond puritanism New England: those who didn’t fit in with the puritans went to providence, RI, established by Roger Williams in 1638 for “heretics”. William also founded first Baptist church in america in 1683. Charter of RI in 1663 spoke of “the lively experiment” (a civil state with full religious freedom) New Amsterdam/new York: first settled by Dutch in 1624, Dutch reformation church was official state religion, but not really enforced until 1647, when peter Stnuyvesant takes over ss governor and starts persecuting Quakers Lutherans and Jews in 1657- prompting the Flushing Remonstrance and ultimately Stuyvesant’s rebuke by the Dutch West India Company which then extends religious freedom to colony Pennsylvania: founded by William Penn in 1681 as the “holy experiment”, allowing Quakers ath other religious freedom. Amish, Mennonites other would settle later in 19 century Maryland: founded in1632 by lord Baltimore as a haven for England Catholics, it soon grew to include many other groups. Act of Tolerance allowed religious freedom for all Christians Virginia: founded in 1607 at Jamestown; Anglican. Jefferson’s Virginia Statue for religious freedom was written in 1779 and passed in 1786 Province of Carolina, 1663; Anglican NATIVE AMERICAN RELIGION: AN INTRODUCTION -Indian nations typically had no word from religion because they did not separate the ordinary details of living from their sacred ceremonies. -trying to isolate Native American religion is a Euro-american way of seeing and organizing things -550 different Indian societies and distinct languages have been identified in North America with a great variety of cultural differences Common Characteristics -Indians thought that every people had its own sacred stories origin myth ceremonial chcle and rituals on which its world was based. -sacred realities very closely linked to daily existence. Kinship with sacred beings—world is a huge extended family network, with no separation of divinity, human beings and nature. -Dimensions of time-Indians see themselves as connected to sacred events of the past that occurred before the coming of the present world; blurring of past and present -importance of dreams which reveal holy, hidden things -significance of named—indicate their kinship with natural world and tell something of their inner essence -trickster figures and sacred clowns, key figures in Indian stories and rituals whose power helped maintain, destroy and regenerate order -native Americans believed that their task was to bring themselves harmony with the natural world The Oglala Perhaps the best known American Indian society mainly because of books by Black Elk Souix hunter gatherer society of the plains One of the 31 Indian nations roamed the prairies between the Mississippi river and the Rocky Mountains hunting buffalo; originated in modern day Minnesota The Hopi Agricultual people farming culture from Southwest where
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