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Psychology PSY 3315
David Carpenter

Notes on test Make sure you understand the theory’s Little albert- phobia- lab- associated little furry animals – j. Watson – scared him – associated with fear *story about little brother in the closet, now scared of the dark Pavlov- associative learning – and has a physiological response to it Junk food junky – associated pleasure from sweets, causes pancrease to secrete insulin Walk past desert bar, excites desire to Pavlovian conditioning Advertising slide • Sex horemones – froid- sex is an impt. Drive/motivation • Associate those feelings with images o Include things like attractive people with cigarets or alchol  Unconsciously we are associating certain things as sexy  Things that are not sexy at all about cigarettes, but convinved that somking is sexy Because of hidden associations When drug addiction takes over after the advertising hooks them Systematic Exposure Bf skinner – behaviorist, not interested in mental processes just behavior To be succesfull and cary on species the human animal learns to operate on the Environment Operant learning Skinner box with mouse Mouse touch lever and food pellet drops down a shoot, they half starved the rat before they put him in there. Is it normal rat behavior to step on levers, no but this rat has learned that he gets a food pellet when he does it. When he gets the pellet – he gets a reward ( positive re-enforcement) How to get him to stop using the lever? Attach the lever to a shocking system for the mouse Depending on the pain produced… If he’s really hungry enough he might be desperate enuf to try Non-re enforcement Gets no reward for touching the lever Shocking his feet Punishment When he shocks the rats feet from the grid and he hits the level and it stops the shock Rat learns that lever equals shock getting turned off Negative re-enfocement b/c getting rid of something bad (removal of aversive stimulus) Re-enforcement – reward – strengthens the behavior Continuous re enforcement– rat steps on lever and gets a food pellet Fixed ration re-enf – every third time he gets a food pellet Variable ratio – he doesn’t know when he will get rewarded Which one has the most engrained behavior If he stops rewarding all together, the one that persists longest has most engrained learning Variable ratio rat? Reason – that he never knew when he was going to get it, The other knew when they were going to get it. In your family when you wanted to do something and were 15/16 y/o and parent says no Family: did no really mean no? in some familys didn’t allways mean no It meant ask some more be more presistant, and maby Did it allways turn to a yes? No, but sometimes Concept: your parents were rewarding on a variable ratio schedule Rewarding behaviors…. Suggestions to parents, don’t be quick to make judgements. Talk about it, once you Say no the child begins to plead and bargin, you give in you are re- enforing the behavior of Trying to get the parent to change mind. Kids need to be hear, but don’t tell them no right away Little boy goes to grocerie store with mom, sitting in cart, good day she talks to people she knows And they say things like sweet little boy, and then at candy part at front. Good boy in store, reward. th Thinks she’s smart… every time candy mom … then on 4-5 trip bad day she was sick and he was in a bad mood/both tired and she got mad at him and he cried, and he wants candy and she says no you were a bad boy, he pitches a big fit, suddlen child screaming at the top of his lungs. She’s embarrassed… What are her choices of what she can do? a- Give him candy – that would work- but she shouldn’t be rewarding his tempertantrum a. Why did she want to shut him up, she was embarrassed b. Emabarassment and humiliation instantly taken away by giving in c. Her behavior was negatively re-enforce, that’s why she was postitively –re enforcing his behavior b- Scream, spank - makes worse c- Ignore the behavior a. Non- re-enforcement i. He can scream as much as wants b. Could provide a punishment later i. Not cognitively really going to work She screwed up when she first gave him the candy for being a good boy a. She thought she was rewarding him being a good boy a. Really, rewarding him for asking for candy b. Adults learn they have to wait for rewards a. Pay check b. We can cognitive understand c. Baby/ animals can’t understand this c. If parents turn no in yes, or rewarding with candy  bad results Skinners theory – you can see this in action 1. Why children grow up throwing tempertanturms a. Mal-adaptive behaviors learned early on by being rewarded for them 2. Behavior modification a. System of rewards for good behaviors, (problem behaviors) maladaptive behaviors b. Token-economy – treatment setting c. Example i. When he was in K, he skiped school and went home, and she said he prob went home, he did And in kindergarden, they take naps ( for teachers not for kids) some fidget and squirm, If you laid down and were good you got a star on forehead, and then you could get a star from Coloring… kids like this kind of stuff.. mom sees it and says oh you’re a good boy im going to make you coookies. *rewards* Parents, don’t typically adk good behavior, normally attention for bad behavior Token econom
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