GEOG 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Lingua Franca, Himalayas, Eurasian Plate

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Published on 4 Dec 2017
Course
Professor
Chapter Eight
South Asia
Major Geographic Qualities
Clearly defined physiographically
o MountainHimalayas
o Desert Thar
o Ocean Indian
o Great rivers
Origin of major religions
o Hinduism
o Buddhism
o Sikhism
o Jainism
Monsoon culture
The Geographic Panorama
Subcontinent
Divided Indian Ocean between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal
Marked by mountains and deserts
British Empire unifying force
Partitions in 1947 based on religion (Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist)
Disputed territory Kashmir
English as Lingua franca
Physiography
A Tectonic Encounter
Spectacular relief in north
Collision of Indian and Eurasian Plate
o Accordion like folds of Himalaya Mountains
o One of most earthquake-prone areas on Earth
Permanent snow and ice provides meltwater to great rivers
Headwaters of great rivers
o Ganges River
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Chapter Eight
o Indus River
o Brahmana River
Religion
Aryans and the Origins of Hinduism
1500 BC northern India invaded by Aryans speaking Indo-European languages
Sanskrit language related to Old Persian
Hinduism emerged from Vedism texts
Social stratification system
o Solidified hegemony of Aryans
o Organized villages into controlled networks
o Small city-states emerged
Caste system class-based
o Brahmins and Untouchables
o Caste determined by past lives
o Eroding in cities due to globalization and urbanization
Hinduism
3rd largest religion in the world 900 million adherents
largest ethnic religion by far
o ethnic religion you are born into an ethnic religion
97 percent of Hindus are found in India
Polytheistic
No central authority or single holy book
Many paths to spirituality
One of world’s oldest religions
Buddhism
3rd largest universalizing religions
400 million adherents (difficult to count)
large clusters in China, SE Asia, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka (70% of population)
Buddha Siddhartha Gautama, 6th century BC, prince from N. India
Buddhism spread much later, 2nd century BC
Other Indigenous (Ethnic) Religions
Jainism developed alongside Hinduism, more purist, principled, and deeply spiritual
(less than 1% of population)
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