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Lecture

16.1, 16.2, 16.3.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO-0013
Professor
Michelle Gaudette

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November 6, 2013 Gene expression – the process of translating the information in DNA into functioning molecules  within the cells DNA  ▯RNA  ▯Proteins Phenotypes can be expressed depending on environmental factors (ex: cold/warm) Beadle and Tatum (1941) create the 1­gene, 1­enzyme hypothesis • Figured out what each gene did by making it defective • Neurospora crassa (bread mold) is useful in the laboratory because it is haploid o You can get the DNA from each of its spores • Found organisms with mutations, then looked at where it can/can’t grow (in various  mediums) o Called a knockout/null strategy o Precursor  ▯Orthinine  ▯Citruline  ▯Arginine   There are enzymes at each conversion point o The wild type in a minimal medium  ▯it can grow o The mutant type in a minimal medium  ▯it can’t grow  ▯there must be a mutation  in the metabolic pathway • Treated the cells with x­rays to create mutants, placed them in a complete medium, took  the ones that grew on that and put them in a minimal medium  ▯if it doesn’t grow in the  minimal medium, then they take those because it has a mutation in the certain metabolic  pathway they’re looking at, then further study those on various mediums to find the  mutant enzyme o Put them in mediums with 
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