BIO-0014 Lecture Notes - Trachea

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Published on 30 Jan 2014
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Bio 14 Lecture 23 Notes
(Go over this packet, has a lot of helpful slides)
Henry’s Law
Concentration of gas dissolved in solution = solubility x partial pressure
Respiration is all about diffusion of gases from lungs which are air filled into the
blood
When you have a jar of air and water, and the partial pressure of the oxygen in air
is 100 mm Hg while the partial pressure of the oxygen in water is 0 mm Hg
oThe whole system will equilibrate so that the partial pressure in each will
be the same – however, the solubility of each will still be different, so the
concentration will be different
oShows that diffusion of a gas will be determined by partial pressure
gradient
The system is at equilibrium even though the concentration of
oxygen in two dissimilar solutions are different
Solubility of O2 of air / water = 34
oProblem for blood – blood is mostly water because we need a lot of
oxygen to be dissolved into the blood
oProblem solved by the introduction of hemoglobin
Carbon dioxide has the same solubility in atmosphere as does oxygen – all gases
have the same solubility
oHowever, ratio of solubility in air to water is about 1.7, compared to
oxygen where its 1.4
CO2 is 20x more soluble in water than Oxygen
Diffusion
Does not need to expend any ATP
Flow from higher concentration to lower concentration
Diffusion works well over short distances – less than a microbe
Relies on thermal energy
Time for diffusion to take place is proportional to the square of the distance
It takes 14 hours for a molecule to move 1 cm
Bulk Flow
Movement that requires some sort of pressure gradient
In blood, the heart supplies the pressure gradient
In the cardiovascular system, the diaphragm supply the pressure for movement of
air from the atmosphere/lungs to the blood
Requires some sort of energy input
Fick’s Law
Equation of diffusion
J (rate of diffusion) = K (diffusion constant) x A(P2-P1)/D
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