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United States (323,899)
FAH-0015 (5)
Lecture

Architecture for the New Monarch #2 3-28

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Department
History of Art
Course
FAH-0015
Professor
Ikumi Kaminishi
Semester
Spring

Description
Employment of the oyatoi (hired foreign experts) • Invited scholars/professors, to disseminate their expertise in universities, etc.; government employed, for national endeavor (to modernize as fast as possible) • Fields: education, medicine, law, transportation, military, arts • Edward Chinossone (1833-1898): Italian engraver ⿞Portraits ‣ The new technique of engraving for Japanese: very fine, meticulous print (in comparison to woodblock print) ‣ Did a portrait of Emperor Meiji: so one of the few people who had actually seen the emperor in person • Woodblock prints representing the emperor: based on what people thought he looked like • Even photographs: certain manipulation; through the intermediary medium of camera and ma ‣ Chinossone's portrait of the emperor: became a blueprint for all other artists who wanted to portray him ⿞Currency ‣ Image of the emperor appeared on the currency • Edward Morse (1838-1925): American Zoologist ⿞Professor ⿞From Peabody-Essex Museum ⿞His great-grandson(?) at Amherst, Japanese Buddhist art specialist (Anne Nishimura Morse of the MFA: his wife) • Ernest Fenollosa (1853-1908): American educator ⿞Philosophy and Political Economy ⿞Loved Japanese ancient/classical art: sculpture especially ⿞As Japanese art historian at the MFA with Okakura Tenshin: taught Okakura; the two promoted Japanese classical art (Heian, etc.; no Edo, ukiyoe, etc.) • Josiah Conder (1852-1920): British architect; as soon as he graduated college, won a distinguished award for his architectural design, so recruited by the Meiji government to come to Japan ⿞Western designs ⿞Japanese pupils Oyatoi Architects: • Josiah Conder, British • Hermann Ende, German • Wilhelm Boeckmann, German • Conder taught at the Imperial College of Engineering (like the MIT of US) ⿞From old British tradition: so taught architecture as art and not engineering/ carpentry (Renaissance idea) • Conder, Rokumeikan ("The Deer Cry Pavilion"), Tokyo, 1883 ⿞Roman arches and colonnades, Italian (a villa), dome (cupola) ⿞For Meiji aristocracy (upper class government position): banquets Chikamatsu Kiken, Ballroom dancing at the Rokumeikan, 1888 • Triptych woodblock print • Japanese aristocrats wearing European clothes, dresses, loves, shoes... ⿞No top knots for men, no coiffured hair for women... • But seemed wasteful to outsiders: became a target of ridicule Georges Bigot, Tobae • Started Tobae in the style of 12th century scroll painting of animals with satirical undertone ⿞Now poking fun at this new culture: acting like Westerners, but do they really know how to dance?, etc. ⿞Just any sort of misbehavior with western culture became a site of ridicule Building Meiji Japan: Students of Conder • Rokumeikan burned down, and never been rebuilt • But Conder's best "products" or legacy left in Japan: his Japanese students • Katayama Tokuma (1853-1917) • Tatsuno Kingo (1854-1919) • Born about the same year; studied together at the Imperial College; both from a samurai class Katayama Tokuma • 1879: Imperial College of Engineering; studied under Josiah Conder • 1882: Sent to Europe for survey ⿞Was hired by the monarch; so an imperial architect ⿞To bring back some Western knowledge, etc. ⿞Must have looked at European aristocratic houses, in order to build such a palace or a villa for the imperial household • 1886: Visited Germany • 1887: Visited the USA Tatsuno Kingo • 1879: Imperial College of Engineering; studied under Josiah Conder; traveled to England and Europe • 1880: Architectural firm of Burges in London; also studies at London University • 1883: Returned to Japan after his study in France and Italy • 1888-89: Europe and America to study bank buildings • The two similar, but different interests: for the imperial crown vs. bank buildings Katayama Tokuma, Architect for the Crown • Detached Palace, Akasaka, Tokyo (1909) ⿞Akasaka: spot right next to the imperial ground (but outside of it, so "detached") • Mirror of Japan: the image of imperial family as the image of Japan ⿞Prince Yoshihito: to marry; so the Emperor Meiji decided to build a house for him; Akasaka to be dedicated for this purpose Akasaka Detached Palace (1909) • Now a National treasure • History of the building: ⿞Beginning of the imperialistic period: ‣ 1894-95: Sino-Japanese War ‣ 1904-05: Russo-Japanese War ⿞1909-1948: imperial detached palace ⿞1945: lost in WWII ⿞1948-61: National Diet Library ⿞1948-70: Courthouse ⿞1956-60: Constitution Office ⿞1961-65: Tokyo Olympics Committee (1964: Tokyo Olympics) • 1968-73: repair and remodeling ⿞By Murano Togo • Since 1974: State's Guest House (Geihin-kan) • Japan at the time trying to control all the neighboring areas; by WWII, claiming Pan-Asian/Pacific as Japan's domain; almost half a century effort ⿞This type of architecture (publicly imposing): to put Japan on the same level as the Western nations, which had all been modernized already ‣ Unbalance between Emperor Meiji, the father, and the crowned Prince Yoshihito, the son: different messages • The residence by Kigo Kiyoyoshi was not like this building at all ‣ In the end, this never becomes the prince's palace • Instead imperial palace; for foreign guests (in place of Rokumeikan) • Since then, never really imperial palace, but government office function • Neo-Baroque style, but cleaned up: also Neoclassical • Copper-tiled roof
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