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Lecture

Language I.docx
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0001
Professor
Yvonne Wakeford
Semester
Fall

Description
Language I Syntax ­ How words combine to form sentences o Deals with words and phrases ­ Nearly every sentence is brand new o Understanding is not through memorization  Must have rules to generate sentences and to apply our knowledge ­ Hierarchical o Sentences are not simply words in linear order o Words combine to form phrases, which serve as identifiable units (noun phrase,  verb phrase, etc.) ­ Use heuristics to process sentences o Ex. Old (adjective>95%, noun<5%) Morphology ­ Rules that govern how prefixes, suffixes, and compounds may combine to form words o Deals with: morphemes (affixes and roots) ­ Ex. un­relent­less­ly ­ Affixation o Attaching prefixes and suffixes to roots o Infixes: inserting morpheme in middle of word o Circumfixes: ge­frag­t ­ Compounding o Concatenation of roots to form new words Phonology ­ Rules that govern how sounds may combine to form words ­ Phonemes (basic unit of sound), syllables, etc. o Stin, Rbick, Tlib, Blafe  Stin and blafe sound like they could be words (legal combination of  consonants: “St” and “Bl”) ­ Final Devoicing (German, Dutch, Russian) o Consonants at end of word or syllable are voiceless  Voicing: vocal fold vibration o German  Kinder vs. Kind (kint) Language Processing ­ Mostly unconscious ­ Untaught o Neither parents nor school teach kids (spoken) language  Parents simply speak at their children  School puts the “finishing touches” on spoken language (children can form  very complicated sentences when they get to school) o Spoken language is acquired simply by being exposed to language ­ Stress rules for –ize o Fossilze, randomize, personalize, vs. obscene­ize, corrupt­ize o Okay when words have stress early, not when roots have final stress ­ English expletive affixation o Un­freaking­believable vs. Un­believe­freaking­able Language ­ Different levels of organization (phonology, morphology, syntax) ­ Some parts are retrieved (words) ­ Some parts are constructed (sentences, novel words) ­ Untaught, unconscious Where is language located? ­ Methodologies o Lesion­deficit analyses  Paul Broca (Broca’s area) • Patient had syphilis infection led to severe speech impairment at  age 31 • Could only utter “tan”, but had intact comprehension • Autopsy revealed lesion o First anatomical proof of the localization of brain function • Broca’s Aphasia o Difficulty initiating speech, non­fluent speech o Filled with content but not function words o Syntactically poor o Comprehension>Production  Carl Wernicke (Wernicke’s area) • Identified patients with comprehension impairments stemming  from damage to left superior temporal gyrus • Wernicke’s aphasia o Fluent speech o Well­formed sentences o Semantically poor o Production>Comprehension  BUT, there is large individual variability • Speech production and comprehension involve many component  functions, and lesions can impair different subsets • These clinical categories should be t
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