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Lecture

chap 11.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0001
Professor
Sam Sommers
Semester
Fall

Description
Stress & Health 04/15/2014 Stress Unpleasant state of arousal when we perceive that an event (stressor) threatens our ability to cope  effectively  Events that qualify as stressors Catastrophes involving death or threat of death or serious injury to self or others  Major life events (e.g., losing a job) Daily hassles (e.g., traffic jams, money concerns) Holmes­Rahe Life Events Scale #1: Death of spouse (value = 100) #2: Divorce #8: Fired at work #12: Pregnancy #20: Mortgage over $10,000 (1964) #28: Outstanding personal achievement Top Ten Common Hassles Concerns about weight Health of a family member Rising prices of common goods Home maintenance Too many things to do Misplacing or losing things Yard work Property, investments, or taxes Crime Physical appearance Stress Response Self­report (perceived stress) Biological measures Sympathetic nervous system responses, such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, or  muscle tension  Increased levels of epinephrine & norepinephrine  Increased cortisol (stress hormone released by adrenal gland) Stress & Cortisol Stress activates the hypothalamic­pituitary­adrenal (HPA) axis to release stress hormones (e.g., cortisol)  Hypothalamus ▯ pituitary gland ▯ adrenal glands ▯ glucocorticoids (cortisol)  Cortisol release Decreases inflammation  Releases amino acids in bloodstream to be used by liver to synthesize glucose and increase blood sugar,  which increases energy for fight or flight response Depresses immune system (over time)  Chronically elevated levels can be detrimental to cells in the hippocampus  Hippocampi are smaller in patients with high circulating cortisol, in monkeys experiencing chronic social  stress, and in patients with PTSD  Stress & Health Stress  ▯ CNS and endocrine changes (e.g., activation of hypothalamus and release of cortisol and  adrenalin) ▯  exposure to pathogens ▯  lowered bodily defenses against illness ▯  disease  Stress  ▯ worse health practices (e.g., smoking, drinking, diminished exercise, poor diet, accidents) ▯   exposure to toxins and lowered bodily defenses against illness ▯  disease  Stress & Heart Disease  In patients with heart disease: Stress ▯ increased BP & HR, increased epinephrine & norepinephrine, increased ischemia (demand  exceeds supply) ▯  increased risk of cardiac events (MI, ventricular fibrillation)  Cardiac events in healthy individuals predicted by Depression & anxiety High job stress + low control Type A personality (Friedman & Rosenman), meaning hard­driving and competitive, impatient and time­ conscious, anger­prone, aggressive  In individuals prior to onset of heart disease:  Hostility + stress ▯ increased BP & HR, increased epinephrine & norepinephrine, dec
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