● Economic Development:
○ “The process whereby simple, low-income national economies are transformed
into modern industrial economies
○ Although the term is sometimes used as a synonym for economic growth,
generally it is employed to describe a change in a country’s economy involving
qualitative as well as quantitative improvements”
● Human Development:
○ Creation and improving of living conditions
○ People can develop their full potential
○ Long and healthy life
○ Access to an appropriate education system
○ Be productive
○ Live according to their needs and interests
○ Summary: expanding choices so people can lead qualitative lives
○ Not concentrated in amount of money a person gets (money can be used for
○ Regardless of ethnicity, gender, religion, etc.
○ Must be sustainable
● Some operationalism….
○ How can we operationalize (economic) development?
■ Gross Domestic Product/ capita (GDP/capita)
● Money gained from all finished goods and services within a state’s
borders within temporal limits divided by the amount of people in
■ Gross National Product/capita (GNP/capita)
■ Human Development Index (HDI)
■ Genuine Progressive Index
● How can we operationalize (economic) development?
○ Gross Domestic Product/capita
○ Gross National Product/capita
○ Gross National Income/capita
■ GDP + incomes earned by citizens in another state- income earned
domestically by non-citizens
○ Human Development Index
■ “Is a summary measure of