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UGC 112 (103)
Lecture 4

UGC 112 Lecture 4: UGC112-unit4

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Undergraduate College
UGC 112
Boyd Timothy

Revolutions and Building Nation in Western Europe Napoleon’s conquest ● Belgium, Netherlands, Northern Italy, and western germany ● Dark blue = France Congress of Vienna ● Austria, Russia, Prussia, and England decide to divide Europe amongst themselves ● Call a​ conference in Vienna​ in late 1814 ○ Want to put Europe back together ○ Create balance of power ○ Create German Confederation - ​association of 39 ​German​ states in Central Europe Napoleon Returns ● Napoleon returned in early 1815, but was defeated at ​Waterloo ● But the allies treated France Leniently宽容 Balance of power ● Prince Clemens von Metternich​, the Austrian Foreign Minister ● Stops European power from expanding outside their border ○ Language borders and natural geographic border ● Prevention of European Wars ○ Pre - French Rev ● Wanted the ​world to return to how it was before the French Revolution,​ the return of the French monarchy under​ Louis XVIII,​ and to maintain that pre-revolutionary stability Revolutions ● Karl Marx​ hoped for uprisings of the proletariat against the bourgeoisie ● Instead the ​revolutions were led by the Bourgeoisie ● From 1820-1880, there were two kinds of revolutions: ○ A country trying to free itself from the control of another country ■ Greek war for independence ○ Attempts by those within a country to change its government ■ Spanish Revolution ■ More French Revolution Greek War for Independence ● Greece fought a war against their ​Turkish​ overlords from 1821-1832 Spain ● As early yas 1820,​ liberals​ in Spain attempt to change the govt, not successful ● Opposed​ King Ferdinand VII​, who had promised reforms ● Army was sent from a now monarchist Frand to put it down More revolutions in France ● In 1830 ​Charles X​ was overthrown by Orleans, headed by Louis Philippe ● He was replaced by collateral branch of the ruling family, the Orleans, and a more liberal king was put on the throne, ​Louis Philippe ● Delacroix ​- liberty leading the people ● Les Miserables​ - French historical novel Even more revolution ● In 1848 ​Louis Philippe​ was overthrown and a ​republic was established ​(represented by people) ● Led by ​Louis Napoleon ● The republic only lasted four years when Louis napoleon staged a coup发动政变 and became emperor, ​Napoleon II​ ruling from (1852-2870) Turmoil动荡 Elsewhere ● A 3-year war in ​Denmark ● Revolutions in several German states, Italy, and Hungary England ● London becomes somewhat of a refuge for political exiles from across Europe ● England itself undergoes some struggles but not a violent revolution ● Liberals​ were able to reform factories and mines but there was another problem, the Corn Laws The Corn Laws ● Rich landlords rammed a series of acts through parliament ● These removed foreign competition, and allowed them to control the price of grain Great Potato Famine ● The Corn Laws were finally repealed in 1846, after the Great Potato Famine ● Perhaps a million​ Irish died ​or fled the country because they can’t support themselves ● England feared they might also face famine if only local grain was depended upon Nationalism ● Comes from Romantic ideas ○ 1820-1871 - state transformations ● Leads to ideas of nation superiority - believe your country is better than others ● 1820-1821 - state transformation in France, Italy, and Germany France ● Bourgeoisie maintained stability ● Napoleon III​ was good for business but overambitious 太过分 ● France loses its war with​ Prussia ● Napoleon III abdicates退位 and France becomes a republic Italy ● Divided​ since the fall of Rome ● 1820 - the “​Carbonari​”, the “charcoal burners”自由党 ● 1848 - ​Piedmont​ (kingdom in Italy) was aided by ​Pope Pius IX ○ but are defeated by the Austrians ● Italy eventually becomes a monarchy Giuseppe Garibaldi ● Italian patriot爱国者 captures Sicily the next year, then takes all of southern Italy up to Rome ● His falls in 1871, but Italy does becomes unified, a monarchy based on the state of Piedmont and its King ​Victor Immanuel Germany ● Became the confederation of the Rhine for a brief period under one of Napoleon’s brother ● Then in 1860-1871, Prussian Prime Minister ​Otto von Bismarck​ gets to works Otto von Bismarck ● Reduces Austria ● Combines all the smaller states into a greater Germany ● Starts wars with Denmark (1864), Austria (1866), France (1870-1871) Kaiser Wilhelm I ● Crowed King of Germany at Versailles Before: Medieval European Cities - Built next to rivers, used for - Drinking and washing with water - Sewage outtake - Surrounded by a defensive wall - Population: 30,000 - 50,000 - Narrow, haphazard streets - No city planning - Building overhanging streets - Dark and smoky - Built UP, not out - No: - Nighttime lighting - Public services - Fire department or police - Sewers - Regular garbage collection - Jobs - Small craft jobs - No mass employment Around 1800 - Mills工厂 are established along rivers - People move country → city to work at mills or factory (due to enclosure act) - Population of cities expand x10 - Population growth example: England - 1801: 1.5 million lived in cities (17% of population) - 1851: 6.3 million (35%) - 1891: 15.6 million (54%) - But, a city’s form remains the same as before - Characteristics of cities can be seen throughout Europe and NE U.S. in the first half of 19th century (1800-1850) - Health hazards of Medieval cities the same too Cholera Epidemic​: London 1854 - Cholera is caused by - Bacteria: Vibrio Cholerae - Symptoms include: - High fever - Massive diarrhea - Because of this symptom, - It’s easily spread from person to person and carried in water - Epidemic​: widespread disease across a population - Close and crowded city, water isn’t treated, so, cholera spread quickly - doctors/medical community believed diseases were spread by: - Miasma瘴气​: The Thames (river), full of sewage, smelled so bad that Parliament was forced to close in the summer - Dr. John Snow - Cholera Map - Cluster of dots = outbreak (where it is coming from) Disease and Living Conditions: Improvements - Parliamentary Investigations and Reports, 1840s-1860s: - Drinking water regulated - Proper drainage installed - Edwin Chadwick:​ public health - 1870: ​Louis Pasteur​ argued against miasma. Instead, developed ​Germ Theory​. - Tool: Microscope - Began with studies in fermentation发酵 - afterwards, anthrax(disease) - Did an experiment in cow for antibiotic - Joseph Lister​: Limited infections through ​sterile surgery​ and ​hand washing - Robert Koch​: Bacteriologist, helped the understanding of TB, cholera, and anthrax - His assistance develope ​petric dish Urban Renewal - Carry out by ​Baron Haussmann​, chosen by Napoleon III - Example: Paris - Reconstruction of medieval city - City more accessible for garbage collectors, firemen, and troops - Deliberately placed public parks - Broad boulevards in old neighborhoods Making Travel Easy - 1830s: W. Europe and U.S. built railroads city to city - Pre-railroads: horse, foot, boat - Post-railroads: trains stop in small towns around big city. Commuters appear - 1830s: ​Omnibuses - Pulled by horses - Rode it point to point - Cheap - 1890s: Electricity is cheap - Electric Trolleys began to appear - Easier and cheaper Class structure - 18th century: ​rigid class structure - Nobility - held and own land - Small merchant class - Craftsmen - glass, telescope, gun - Everyone else - 19th century - expectation : ​Karl Marx - 2 sharply defined groups - Reality: Three classes - Upper class​: Landowners and industrialists - Middle class​: technical support, a bureaucratic class, owners of a single business - Increasing in numbers and financial power - Lower class​: skilled laborers and their helpers - Still big divide between classes and their wealth Cities in 1900 - Below: Steel tracks for trolley lines - Above: wires for trolleys, electric lights, telephone systems - Taller buildings with elevators - Upper class are industrial rich - Middle class moves outside of the city - Lower class still stays in the city - Healthier places than medieval cities - Services: - City water, sewers, garbage collection, street lighting, police Late 19th/Early 20th cent. Science - Industrialization brought science to the forefront - Electricity was steadily produced using the Dynamo 发电机 - Advances in chemistry included using oil as fuel (gasoline) and artificial dyes - Advances in biology helped keep the city healthy Western Imperialism I ● Storming the Bastille ● Napoleon taken like a Roman emperor, but defeated at battle of waterloo ● Monarchs of France: ○ Napoleon I → Louis XVIII → Charles X → Louis Philippe → ○ Then shift to republic ● British Domination of world trade (related to later colonialism and imperialism) ● Change in Europe ○ Enormous changes from 1750 - 1850 ■ In colonies ■ Industrial revolution ■ In outlook (e.g. Romanticism, socialism, utopianism) Change 1 - Colonial changes ● Portugal and spain have lost most of their colonial holdings ● France has lost colonies in Canada, bits of India, and some islands in the Caribbean ● Spanish colonial cathedral 教堂 ● Former French fortress of Louisbourg, Cape breton island England Domination: breaking hearts and taking colonies ● England is successful in a series of wars between 1750 - 1815 ● Outcome: ○ England has gained most of the foreign territories of France ○ Also gained some colonial holdings from other countries Change 2: Industrial Revolution ● Major shift: ○ Horse, ox, human muscle power→ water power→ steam power ○ Wood burning → coal ● Results: ○ Increased production of goods ○ People moved from countryside to city Change 3 - outlook ● Rousseau leads a revolution of the senses ● Emergence of romanticism ● Romanticism inspired by the philosophes ● Romantics had ideas about: ○ Political worth, Economic worth, Social worth ● From which ideas emerged: ○ Socialism and Utopianism Karl Marx ● Growing industrialism has further emphasized the struggle between: ○ The Haves (bourgeoisie) ○ The Have Nots (proletariat) ● His ideas are a response to the industrial revolution ● He critiques Capitalism Capitalism - A brief sketch ● 1750 - 1850 Capitalist Revolution ● Corporation - a collection of small businessmen ● Corporation compete against one another ○ Competition is encouraged ● Free market economics ○ No barriers, competition healthy ○ Opposes mercantil economy Capitalism and Agriculture ● New ideas about agriculture: ○ Agriculture seen as old - fashioned ○ Takes up too much of the land ○ Does not produce enough to make the desired profits ■ People are slow and cost money ■ Let’s replace them with machines or… (Romney Sheep) The World Market ● Trade must be constant and cyclical ● Must produce goods as cheaply as possible ○ Maximize profits ● S
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