• geopolitics:Russia also on the rise and dint wanna see russians taking control
of Black Sea and having access to the eastern sea.
• Mongol Empire:
Safavid Empire:Formed in 16th century survived into 1773.
Developed very strong religious identity.
Defending chia strain of Islam.
Active and powerful clergy.
Ulema....judges who enforced law.
More resistant to secular sciences.Anything that threatened the clergy.
Rug merchants created an in demand product.Also silk