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Lecture 6

PSYC 1001 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Problem Solving, Deductive Reasoning, Functional Fixedness


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1001
Professor
Pamela Miller
Lecture
6

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Thinking
The ability to form concepts that organize our world , by solving problems and making
efficient decisions
Cognitive psychologists study mental activities associated with processing,
understanding and communicating information
Concept formation-mental grouping of information
o By definition-rules
o By prototype=representation of the most typical example of a category
o Organization of concepts-the most basic level you can organize something into
(apple), prototypes
Problem solving cycle: problem identification, defining the problem, constructing a
strategy for problem solving, organizing info about a problem, allocation of resources,
monitory problem solving, evaluate problem solving
Well defined problem-know the initial state, the rules and goal state ex. Mazes, Tower
of Hanoi
Ill-defined problems-startig poit, potetial solutio ut the ed poit is’t lear
Insight
Insight is a distinctive and seemingly sudden understand of a problem or strategy that
aids in solving the problem
o Involved re-conceptualizing the problem
o Kohler (1925)
o Matcalfe and Weibe-steady warmth for well-defined problems, only felt warmth
when they actually solved the problem
Heuristic
A strategy in which you ignore some alternative and explore only those that seem
especially likely to produce a solution
o Is faster, ore error proe ad does’t guaratee a orret aser
o Ex. Analogy, hill-climing heuristics (when you always look 1 more step ahead and
choose paths that most likely resemble the goal state) means-end analysis
(reducing a complex problem into simple, more solvable problems)
Obstacles
o Mental sets: a frame of mind involving an existing model for representing a
problem, this fixating reduces the likelihood of insight
o Functional fixedness: the fixation of a particular use for an object
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