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Lecture 2

PSYC 1001 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Pellagra, Dependent And Independent Variables, Phineas Gage

Course Code
PSYC 1001
Weisbuch Max

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Foundations of Psychology Day 2
Research Methods
What research methods do psychologists use?
What are the strengths/weaknesses of each?
Why doesn’t correlation = causation?
What are the components of an experiment?
What is a placebo effect?
How can survey questions go wrong?
Case Studies (Question 1)
In depth study of:
An individual or small group
A specific environment
Anecdotes : some theory that has other studies
Can provide a vivid anecdote for someone's theory
Can lead to entire shifts in scientific thinking
Case studies : referred to in initial to protect anonymity
KC : amnesia after motorcycle accident
Could remember all the facts but couldn’t remember any experiences
Different types of memory? Events vs. facts
Episodic Memories : remembering an experience, events
Semantic Memory : general knowledge, facts
SM : can’t feel fear after amygdala destruction
Could feel every emotion but fear
Couldn’t identify fear on other people’s faces
Can you isolate fear to one area of the brain
The amygdala is SPECIFICALLY involved in fear, more-so than
other emotions?
Motivational activeness
Case study is typically one person
No way to tell if same effects would occur on one individual and another
Phineas Gage
Got a iron rod shot through his cheek and head
Phineas got up and walked away
Free of pain and all senses intact
Friends described as not gage
First patient to suggest a link between personality and the frontal
Frontal lobe damage and possibly some outside of the frontal lobes
Rich, qualitative data → helps provide in-depth
Vivid illustrations that can generate scientific theories
Heavy reliance on retrospective and self-report data
find more resources at
find more resources at
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