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Lecture 11

ANSC 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Feed Conversion Ratio, Crustacean, Striped Bass

Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 101

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ANSC 101: Lecture 11: Aquaculture
- Definition: Rearing of aquatic organisms under controlled conditions
- Today it is over 50 percent of fish consumed
- 60% is freshwater, and 40% is marine
- Worldwide, it is the fastest growing sector of the food animal market – exceeding global
beef production
Advantages of Aquaculture
- Best feed conversion rate
- High in essential amino acids
- High in essential fatty acids
Methods of Aquaculture
- Nets/cages for fish (ocean, sea, rivers, lochs) can be problematic if bred fish escape
- Ropes/strings for bivalves (clams, oysters, mussels, scallops)- naturally attached
- Ponds (freshwater or saltwater) for fish and crustacean species
- Tanks on land for fish
Fish waste management
- Fish defecate and urinate into the aquatic environment in which they life. Water quality
must be kept at a high level to insure health and growth of the organism
- Waste management is critical to successful operations
Fish are ammonatelic species: excrete ammonia
Ammonia is the most toxic of all forms of animal waste nitrogen.
How wastes are removed
-Fish in ocean nets or cages: waste removed by flow-through water
-Fish in ponds: Waste removed by bacterial populations living on the pond bottom
Similar to a home aquaria where bacteria live on the aquaria substrate and/or surfaces:
gravel, grass, plants on the bottom
-Re-circulating systems: Ammonia and nitrite nitrogen removed via bacteria (biological
filtration). Saves water
-Mechanical or solids filter: Removes large undissolved solids (uneaten feed and fecal
-Ammonia and nitrite removal: Bacteria break ammonia down to nitrite metabolically
and nitrite is further metabolized to nitrite which is less toxic and generally removed
with water exchanges.
U.S Aquaculture
- Mississippi (catfish)
- Idaho (trout)
- Maine (salmon)
find more resources at
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