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Lecture 2

CCJS 300 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Auguste Comte, Deductive Reasoning, Belmont Report


Department
Criminology and Criminal Justice
Course Code
CCJS 300
Professor
Alan Lehman
Lecture
2

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LOGICAL SYSTEMS-LINKING TEHORY AND RESEARCH
-Deductive logic: expectations/hypotheses from theories
-Inductive: generalizations from specific observations
APPROACHES TO RESEARCH
-Positivistic: trying to map the way we think about social sciences using methods from the hard
sciences (Auguste Comte)
-Interpretive: understand everyday life experience (Max Weber)
-Critical: liberating knowledge for a better world (Marx, Freud)
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH & TIME
-Cross-sectional research: a snapshot in time (i.e. survey research)
-Longitudinal research: time as a variable, over/across time
-Time series: observing multiple people, multiple times, across time
-Panel: the same people observed at two or more times
-Cohort: people who share an experience at two or more times
-Case study: small set of people observed intensely over a period of time
PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
-Exploration
-Description
-Explanation (causality)
-Evaluation/Application
RESEARCH PROCESS
Induction Theory
Findings Deduction
Hypotheses
Statistical Analysis
Data Gathering Research Design
Measurement
GENERAL STEPS IN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
-Problem formulation research
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