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12 The Norman Conquest3.docx

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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

The Norman Conquest 3/26/13 Alfred prevented crisis that striked Frankland and protected England (King at end of 9 C) 11thC Norman Conquest Emma of Normandy (Queen of England) - Married Anglo Saxon King of England- King Aethelred II of England, “the Unready” - Aethelred unable to hold off invasion of England by Danes - Fighting for control of England, but was losing, he died and control fell to Danes King Canute of England- to legitimize claim to England, he married Emma (better than left as widow to past King)- good move for both - Through hereditary right and military force- came to be King of England, Denmark, Norway and parts of Sweden - Canute followed Anglo Saxon royal tradition in England, was Xtian, respected existing AS customs, and was patriarch of English monasteries - Canute dies, but Emma had 1 son with Canute (Harthacanute) and 2 with Aethelred (Alfred, Edward) o King Edward of England, “the Confessor”- only surviving son with Aethelred - Emma was “king maker”- Canute legitimized power by marrying her, and in 2 disputes managed to get her son on the throne Emma of Normandy - Daughter of duke of Normandy, sent Edward to live in Normandy for safe- keeping and lived there for 27 years before became king of England (culturally more Norman than Anglo Saxon) o Introduced Norman customs to English court (upset AS nobles), doesn’t follow their customs o Had no children, had to select an heir - Chose King William I of England, “the Conqueror” o Signals that kings of England will remain Norman, AS excluded from power o before Edward died in 1066, he changed his mind on his heir, override promise to give kingdom to William and gave to Harold Godwinson - Harold Godwinson- of prominent AS family 2 mens with claim to same throne - Harold had sworn loyalty to William before being elected as next King - Trouble from King of Norway (tried at shot at throne, possible invasions from north of Norway and south from Normandy) - William wanted to conquer it but dind’t get vassals’ support for sea invasion o Persuaded Pope that English crown belonged to him and received blessing for expedition, so norman lords fell in line  Use papal sanction to enforce authority over vassals Battle of Hastings - AS (Godswinson) army and Norman army meet in 1066 - William wins
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