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Lecture 11

BIL 250 Lecture 11: ch 2 part 1

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BIL 250

CH.2 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS NOTES Chromosomes: serve as vehicles for transmitting genetic information Visible only during mitosis and meiosis Chromatin: unfolded DNA, which comprises chromosomes Mitosis: leads to production of two cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell Portion of the cell cycle during which the hereditary components are equally partitioned into daughter cells Meiosis: reduces the genetic content and the number of chromosomes by precisely half Essential if sexual reproduction is to occur without doubling the amount of genetic material in each new generation Part of the special type of cell division that leads to the production of gametes: sex cells (aka spores) Essential step in the transmission of genetic information from an organism to its offspring Cell Structure Nucleolus, ribosomes, and centrioles are involved directly or indirectly with genetic processes Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own unique genetic information Plasma Membrane: outer covering that defines the cell boundary and delimits the cell from its immediate external environment Not passive but instead actively controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell Glycocalyx/Cell Coat: covering over the plasma membrane Many/most animal cells have this Chemical composition that differs from comparable structure in either plants or bacteria Provides biochemical identity at the surface of cells, and the components of the coat that establish cellular identity are under genetic control Cell Wall: outer covering whose major component is a polysaccharide called cellulose found in plant cells Receptor Molecules: found on the surface of cells; act as recognition sites that transfer specific chemical signals across the cell membrane into the cell Eukaryotic Organism: presence of a nucleus and other membranous organelles Nucleus: membrane bound structure that houses the genetic material, DNA, which is complexed with an array of acidic and basic proteins into thin fibers Nucleolus: amorphous component where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synthesized and where the initial stages of ribosomal rRNA are collectively referred to as the nucleolus organizer region or the NOR Found in the Nucleus Cytoplasm: variety of extranuclear cellular organelles Extensive system of tubules and filaments, comprising the cytoskeleton, which provides a lattice of support structures within the cell Microtubules: made of tubulin Microfilaments: derive from the protein actin this structural framework maintains cell shape, facilitates cell mobility, and anchors the various organelles Cytosol: surrounds and encompasses the cellular organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum:
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