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Lecture 6

GSC 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Panspermia, Nasa Astrobiology Institute, Methane Clathrate

Geological Sciences
Course Code
GSC 102

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GSC102 Lecture 6:
Viruses are not considered alive because they cannot reproduce themselves
Ex) HIV virus within body uses host’s DNA to reproduce itself HIV uses
T-cells (immune system cells) rip open T-cell to take DNA and reproduce
itself now there are 2 new viruses that attack one T-cell each, they
reproduce themselves and so on destroys immune system, cannot fight off
diseases such as common cold
The medicine we have now prevents HIV from reproducing itself coats T-
cells in something so virus cannot destroy them
Genetic Material
*YouTube: What is DNA and How Does it Work?
RNA are small short pieces that have been copied from DNA that can fit into
the pores of a nucleus and get into the cytoplasm
DNA stores information, but RNA allows information from DNA to be used in
the cytoplasm, where all the activities actually occur
Ribosomes read the DNA code, takes 3 letters (nucleic bases) at a time, and
develops them into proteins
“T” for DNA, “U” for RNA
Nucleic acids have pairs C and G always bond together
A and T always bond together but in RNA, U takes the place of T
Codons are comprised of 3 nucleic bases forms 1 protein per 3 nucleic
bases (letters in the DNA code)
Once a protein is built it can do many things, including the formation of a
brand new cell
DNA RNA into cytoplasm to grab ribosome forms amino acids
Difference between Proteins and Nucleic Acids. Proteins are made up of a
series of amino acids. Nucleic Acids (RNA and DNA) are made up of a series
of nucleotides. The center of an amino acid is the carbon bonded to four
different groups.
DNA is the blueprint of life, amino acids are the building (“Lego”) blocks
There are actually only 20-something amino acids that exist, but they are
able to form millions of proteins
Miler-Urey experiment
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
Took ocean water (“primordial soup”) and heated it generated a primitive
atmosphere based on gases
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