Class Notes (836,147)
United States (324,358)
Psychology (432)
PSYCH 101 (308)
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 What word is this? SPLYOOYHCG Problem Solving Strategies  Trial and Error  Algorithms  Heuristics  Insight Algorithms  Very time consuming. Exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. Computers use algorithms Heuristics  Simple thinking strategies that allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently  Less time consuming but more error-prone than algorithms  Make it easier for us to use simple principles to arrive at solutions to problems Obstacles in Solving Problems  Confirmation Bias: a tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias  2 – 4 – 6  8  however, rule was any ascending series of numbers. 1 – 2 – 3 would comply. The Candle-Mounting Problem  You have the following materials: o A birthday candle o 10 thumbtacks o A box of matches o A cork bulletin board  Your goal is to mount the candle onto the bulletin and light it Fixation  The inability to see a problem from a new/different perspective o Candle problem  Functional fixedness: an object can serve multiple functions Decision Making & Judgments  Each day we make hundreds of judgments Representativeness Heuristic  Judging the likelihood of things or objects in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, a particular prototype Availability Heuristic  Whatever increases the ease of retrieving information increases its perceived availability Overconfidence  Intuitive heuristics, confirmation of beliefs, and the inclination to explain failures increase our overconfidence.  It is a tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments  i.e. in the stock market, both the seller and the buyer may be confident about their decisions on a stock Exaggerated Fear  The opposite The Effects of Framing  Decisions and judgments may be significantly affected depending upon how an issue is framed Belief Perseverance  The tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence  i.e. participants for and against capital punishment read two article, one with research supporting the idea that the death penalty deters crime and another with research refuting the idea. Each rated the article in line with their own beliefs as more valid Summary Reasoning & Decision Making  reasoning and decision making, like perce
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