“Never try to teach a pig to sing. It wastes your time and annoys
Easier to learn things necessary for survival
Not all things learned equally
What Is It?
Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior
due to experience
We typically learn by association
o Two types of things co-occur (i.e. mom’s face over the crib =
getting picked up)
o That an action will be associated with an outcome (i.e. if we
cred, then we get fed)
Involved the pairing of two previously unassociated events
o Getting new stimulus
Ivan Pavlov was Russia’s first Nobel Prize for digestion, not
1. Baseline: before conditioning, unconditioned stimulus produces
unconditioned response. However the neutral stimulus does not
2. During conditioning, the NS and the US are paired, resulting in
UR. After conditioning, the conditioned stimulus elicits conditioned
Q: In our attempted conditioning experiment with Cocco, what was the
unconditioned stimulus? CHEESE!
Initial learning stage in classical conditioning in which an
association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
to take place
o In MOST CASES, for conditioning to occur, the neutral stimulus
needs to come before the unconditioned stimulus
o The time in between the two stimuli should be short, about
half a second
Extinction When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation)
begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction
After a rest period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously
recovers, but if the CS (tone) persists alone, the CR becomes
Q: If Cocco comes back to class next year, what should happen when I
ring the blue bell? She should pay attention due to spontaneous
Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is called
generalization (i.e. dog would salivate to similar tones)
The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus
and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
Q: IF Cocco paid attention to both bells, Pavlov would call this
generalization but Piaget would call it assimilation.
Garcia showed that the duration between the CS and the US may be
long (hours) BUT yet result in conditioning.
i.e. eating pizza or sushi then getting sick from the flu.
Tend to associate the two, although they may be completely
A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning but other
stimuli (sight or sound) did not
Association is formed between a given behavior and its consequence,
either good or bad.
o Good consequences will increase the likelihood that one will
perform the behavior again