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Lecture 3

NPB 168 Lecture 3: NPB168 Lecture 3

4 Pages
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Department
Neurobiology,Physio & Behavior
Course Code
NPB 168
Professor
Liets Lauren

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Description
NPB168 Lecture 3  5 liters of blood circulated fully in minute  Primary route of elimination is urine o Some alcohol removed in breath (why breathalyzer works)  Millions of nephron in kidney, nephron is functional unit of kidney  Whatever ends in peritubular capillary stays in the body, whatever ends in kidney tubule leaves the body.  Tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion are tightly controlled.  Metabolism BYP1-3  Metabolic Induction – drug administration leads to an increase in the activity or availability of its own hepatic enzymes  Metabolic inhibition – drug administration leads to a decrease in the activity or availability of hits own hepatic enzymes o Consequence: the pharmacological effects are increased o Enzyme system can set itself back to normal  First Pass metabolism o Drugs must tolerate the acidic environment of the GI tract o Drugs must first cross cells lining the GI tract where they may come across metabolic enzymes o Next drugs pass through the liver – the primary metabolic site o Drugs moved into the systemic blood undergo depot binding  Repeated Administrations: Tolerance and Sensitization o Tolerance  A state of progressively decreasing responsiveness to subsequent administrations of the same dose of a drug  A need to increase the dose of a drug with subsequent administrations in order to yield the same magnitude of effect o Sensitization  A state of progressively increasing responsiveness to subsequent administrations of the same dose of a drug  A need to decrease the dose of a drug with subsequent administrations in order to yield the same magnitude of effect  Mechanisms of tolerance o Physical  Metabolic (Drug disposition) tolerance  Metabolic induction – reving up enzymes and breakdown  Cross-tolerance: 2 drugs utilizing the same enzymatic pathway  Pharmacodynamic tolerance  A decreased effect based upon change in the function of the receptor bound by the drug  Psychological  Your psychological state can affect your response to drugs o Set and Setting (your expectations and environment) o Such as being in an interview, drinking wine you will notice no difference since you are already revved up due to stress  Drug Dependence o Definition  Appearance of unpleasant symptoms upon removal of a drug following repeated administrations
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