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Political Science
POL 51
Ben Highton

41714Pol 51 Lecture 5An Alternative to XY A ConfoudingLurking VariableZ a third variable which is related to both X and Yexample if people with more cognitive ability are more likely to attend college and people with more cognitive ability are more likely Oif X and Y are correlated one reason X may not cause Y is that there may be a confounding variable ZZ is a confounding variable if a Z causes Y and b Z causes Xif Z is a confounding variable it may explain all or part of the correlation between X and Ythe solution in theoryto test for whether and to what extent another variable is confounding the correlation between X and Y we need to analyze cases where X varies but the potential confounding variable does notnotice this is a way to approximate the counterfactual condition We are trying to identify instances where X varies but other possible independent variables like Z Oexample withing some countries laws vary but culture does notthere is a correlation between election systems and womens representation in parliament however X changes but Z does not changecontinued support for causal hypothesis Summary Testing Expl
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