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Lecture 15

PSC 130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Place Cell, Sensory Cortex, Unconscious Mind

Course Code
PSC 130

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March 7, 2017:
I. Theories of Memory
A. Theories of Memory
1. The Modal Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin)
a. It can’t account for the behavioral or neural dissociations seen in LTM
(e.g. implicit vs explicit, recollection vs familiarity)?
i. STM LTM there’s a difference between the two; a distinction that can be
ii. Within LTM, we know there’s more types of LTM
iii. Don’t use this because it’s not specific/complicated enough (too simple)
2. Activation Theory (Bower 1996)
a. Amnesics can activate existing representations in LTM (supporting
implicit memory) but cannot create new associations (supporting
explicit memory)
i. Hippocampus can make new representations within (amnesics
would have deficits in hippocampus)
b. Behavioral dissociations MTL lesions Imaging dissociations
c. But: MTL damage should disrupt the implicit learning of new associations
i. You shouldn’t be able to form new associations if the hippocampus is not functioning
ii. Look to see if amnesics can form new associations with existing memory
Implicit Learning of New Information
d. Musen & Squire (1985)
i. Reading speed for repeated/new words
and nonwords in controls and amnesics
ii. *Amnesics exhibit normal priming for
words and nonwords
iii. Priming for new info (reading speed
is faster the second time)
e. Conceptual implicit memory (e.g. new fact
Ex: Bob Pope’s father was a fireman)
f. Semantic learning in childhood amnesics
(e.g. new facts are learned Ex: amnesics who graduated high school)
g. Implicit memory can’t simply reflect the activation of exiting representations (limitation of
activation theory)
3. Episodic vs Semantic Memory (Tulving 1972)
a. Episodic Memory (explicit) episodes or events, dependent on the MTL
b. Semantic Memory (implicit) general knowledge about the world
c. Behavioral dissociation (some rely more on episodic than semantic)
MTL lesions (episodic deficits)
Imaging dissociations
d. *Because both systems can learn, implicit memory can support learning of new info
i. Both systems work in parallel learning must have started as episodic memory but then
were updated into semantic representation for later on
4. Tulving Episodic/Semantic Claims
a. Auxiliary Assumptions
i. Only humans have episodic memory
(Supposedly, all other creatures are stuck with
semantic memory)
But more studies have tested to show that they likely
are capable of episodic memory

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ii. Young children do not have episodic memory (but kids actually have good memory for
b. Limitations
i. How to account for skill learning and perceptual implicit memory?
ii. How to account for MTL subregion results?
c. Modifications the serial in / parallel out model (Tulving 1995)
i. Added a lower level for perceptual/procedural information
5. Declarative vs Procedural Memory (Cohen & Squire 1980)
a. Declarative (explicit) memory that can be declared (knowledge and events), MTL
dependent, but slowly consolidated to cortex
b. Procedural (implicit) learning that can’t be
verbalized or consciously expressed, cortex
c. Behavioral dissociation
MTL lesions
Imaging dissociations
d. *Can account for graded RA (when it occurs)
e. Limitations:
i. How does the procedural learning system support (fast) perceptual implicit memory?
Perceptual implicit memory supposed has priming isn’t clear
ii. How does it support knowledge and conceptual implicit memory (particularly in
How do amesics learn in high school since they don’t have a fully functioning
f. Modifications:
6. But: (3 critical things that are shortcomings; all of these theories fail to account for these following
a. If the hippocampus is for episodic/declarative LTM, then why does it play a role in scene
perception, and trace conditioning?
b. How to account for recollection and familiarity?
c. How to account for differences in hippocampal and perirhinal function?
7. The Binding of Items and Context model of MTL function (Dianna et al. 2007; Eichnbaum et al.
2007; Fernandez et al. 2006; Davachi 2006)
a. Hippocampus: binding of items and contexts together
i. Recollection/episodic memory (recent and remote
ii. Complex scene perception (judgement of placement
of things in a scene)
iii. Binding across time (trace conditioning may require some
b. Perirhinal Cortex: item/object processing
i. Familiarity
ii. Conceptual Implicit (a concept can be more readily available if
seen before)
iii. Object perception (seeing it the second time will be faster)
c. Parahippocampal cortex: context processing
i. Space/scene identification
d. Perceptual implicit: sensory cortex (e.g. visual/auditory/FFA); stuff that’s earlier in the stream
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