Notes Week 7 Anthro
Hegemony: set of beliefs/values that people accept as justifying the rule of the
Gramsci meant the permeation throughout society of an entire system of values,
attitude, beliefs and morality that has the effect of supporting the status quo of
Hegemony encourages society to accept the rule of the dominant class (people
believe this is good for them)
-For Marx and Gramsci, the state is controlled by the dominant class.
Gramsci believed that hegemony tended to prevent revolution. People among the
lower classes believed that the hegemonic system is in their own interests.
Gramsci argues that “traditional intellectuals” are “deputies” for the dominant class.
Traditional intellectuals promote hegemony.
Gramsci argued that in the past, tradition intellectuals were religious leaders. Held
some type of religious positions.
In Europe, in the feudal period, the Catholic Church was the primary means of
Under capitalism, the church is no longer the primary means of maintaining
hegemony, instead it is education!
He argues that traditional educators now promote hegemony.
The school reproduces hegemony.
Gramsci claims that “organic intellectuals can emerge that argue against hegemonic
Gramsci believes that what defines humanity is its ability to think!
Gramsci believes that anyone can become an intellectual.
Unlike traditional intellectuals who tend to support hegemonic domination, organic
intellectuals would fight against hegemony.
Organic intellectuals could produce counter – hegemony!
Counter-hegemony would encourage people not to accept hegemonic domination.
Gramsci & Education
1. Education was controlled by traditional intellectuals who served as deputies
for the dominant class.
2. The formation of “vocational” schools or educations not following a well-
rounded traditional curriculum.
Gramsci believed that the new educational system of the 20 century was
increasinocy elitist. He argued that people from the upper class were educated to
govern society and the rest of society was educated to be “workers!”
Traditional intellectuals promoted a system of unequal access in education. They
were not the solution. Organic intellectuals were the ones who would develop counter-hegemony.
Louis Althusser – French social scientist – writing in the 1970s – builds on gramsci’s
ideas and concepts. Head of French communist party.
Althusser focused on “The reproduction of the means of production”
How is capitalism maintained over many decades. Two aspects to the maintenance
1. Need to replace its material needs. Raw materials, replace or update