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Lecture 13

BIO SCI 94 Lecture 13: Viruses


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI 94
Professor
Robin Bush
Lecture
13

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Chapter 36: Viruses
Week 5 || Lecture 13 || 2.10.2017
Virus- an obligate, intracellular parasite
- Enter a host cell, take over its biosynthetic machinery, and use that machinery to
manufacture a new generation of viruses
- Outside of host cells, viruses simply exist
- Viruses are not alive because they are dependent on their host cell to satisfy the five
attributes of life
- Each type of virus infects a specific unicellular species or cell type in a multicellular
species
- nearly all organisms examined thus far are parasitized by at least one kind of virus
Characteristics
Viruses
Organisms
Hereditary material
DNA or RNA; can be single
or double stranded
DNA; always double
stranded
Plasma membrane present?
No
Yes
Can carry out transcription
independently?
No
Yes
Can carry out translation
independently?
No
Yes
Metabolic capabilities
Virtually none
Extensive- synthesis of ATP,
reduced carbon compounds,
vitamins, lipids, nucleic acids,
etc.
36.1 Why do biologists study viruses?
- Viruses promote lateral gene transfer (pick up cellular genes and shuttle them from one
organism to another
- Recent viral epidemics in humans
- An epidemic is a disease that rapidly affects a large number of individuals over a
widening area
- A pandemic is an epidemic that is worldwide is scope
- A strain of virus is virulent if it causes severe disease
- Current viral pandemics in humans: AIDS
- AIDS is caused by HIV
- How does HIV cause disease?
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