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Nicole Mitchell

1 Week 1 • jazz o music originated by African Americans  music is central to life and spirituality  teaching/learning through the oral tradition  most complex rhythmic expressions on earth  tradition of improv in music  openness and unreserved expressiveness in communication o incorporates:  syncopated rhythms  displacement in rhythm  improvisation  small separation between composer and musician  bent pitches  blues sounds • drum-set was invented for jazz (ragtime) o originally called contraption o its job is to hold beat o snare on 2 and 4 • Scott Joplin • o ragtime player o played piano and cornet • how to get the music louder w/out microphones o more trombones, trumpets, saxophones • solo playing (improv) o hearing the chord changes and adding your own flair o included in all types of jazz • swing music o has a bounce, liveliness, and a syncopated tension in jazz music o participatory, folk music o inspired from African American culture • time line o 1900 - Folk, Blues, Spirituals, New Orleans Style (Ragtime, Dixieland) o 1919 - able to record music o 1920 - Ragtime, Boogie-Woogie, beginnings of Swing Band o 1930 - Swing Band o 1940 - Swing Band, beginnings of Bebop o 1950 - Bebop, Hard Bop, Bossa Nova, Modal, Cool o 1960 - Free Jazz, Soul Jazz o 1970 - Fusion, Funk, Mainstream o 1980 - Post-Bop, Mainstream, Classic Jazz o 1990 - Smooth Jazz, all styles continue o 2000 - Jazz/Hip-Hop, all styles continue 2 • Jam session - when musicians get together and play o aka cutting sessions  competition, like a dance off 3 Week 2 • Blues is the root of jazz • o 2 repeated lines, 3rd line different but rhymes o considered devil's music because it was played in brothels ect. • Robert Johnson • o country blues o  independent blues player w/a guitar • Bessy Smith • o classic blues singer o first diva o refused to wear black-face o  whites liked black entertainers to make themselves look more black in minstrel shows • slaves weren't allowed to use drums • o African tribes could communicate using drums o didn't want an organized uprising • New Orleans, important for the beginnings of jazz • o port city o  money  international melting pot o French colony, more leigent then British w/drums and such o not as cegergated during slavery (more leingent) o  free blacks were more free o madi gra (parades) o  big catholic celebration b4 lint  helped bring in ragtime o music always in demand for the never ending party • differences between swing bands and ragtime • o larger instrumentation sections replaced single instrument o acoustic bass replaced tuba o soloists replaced collective improvisation o 4/4 swing feel replaced marching band feel 4 o use of the blues form and popular song form • swing bands • o Fletcher Henderson o   one of the earliest swing bandleaders in the 20's  pianist, band-leader, composer o Joe King Oliver o  mentored Armstrong  played cornet  pioneered the use of mutes o Louis Armstrong o  from New Orleans  started idea of soloist  trumpet player  first to record scatting  chill w/bebop o Lil Hardin o Armstrong's second wife singer and pianist o Duke Ellington o  piano  kept band together for 40 years  not chill with bebop  considered one of America's greatest composers o Count Basie o  boogie woogie  pianist  famous for playing riffs   short repeated phrases o Cab Calloway o  Minnie the Moocher  liked to interact with audience o Bennie Goodman o  King of Swing  first jazz band to be on TV  clarinet 5 Week 3 • early African-American music (blues, jazz, church music) vs European music in the early 20th century • o oral vs written o different sound vs pure sound o bent and straight notes vs strictly straight notes o composer and musicians have casual relationship vs formal/obedient o expression vs perfection • bebop • o a rebellion from swing o Mintons, a club in Harlem, was an incubator for bebop o resulted from jazz musicians wanting to work on their soloing o focuses on improvisation, more complex harmonies, fast, virtuosity • leaders of bebop • o Charlie Parker o  on of the most influential sax players in jazz  utilized all the notes in order to navigate to and from any chord in the melody  memorized patterns in order to bringing his improv to a higher level  his language and approach of improv has become the template for jazz education today  bent his trumpet in a fight. could play really high o Dizzy Gillespie o  worked w/Charlie Parker  trumpet player o Bud Powell o  translated Parker's improvisation to the piano o Thelonious Monk o  piano  played slower, didn't sound like Parker  considered one of the most original jazz composers  composed many important compositions to the bebop tradition  other musicians held high respect for him, but was under- recognized by audience  so original, hard to imitate o Sonny Rollins 6 o  original melodic phrasing (not patterns)  played tenor, not alto sax o Clifford Brown o  trumpet player o Max Roach o  percussion  played w/most of these bebop guys  made statements regaurding civil rights movement • Cool Jazz vs bebop • o slower tempos vs fast tempos o more lyrical and gentle vs focus on virtuosity o more focused on arranging/composing vs improv o unusual instruments vs traditional instruments o more use of dynamics o orchestral timbres • John Coltrane • o from North Carolina o played tenor sax, but revived the use of soprano sax o helped the shift from 'hard bop' and 'modal' forms of jazz to 'avant-garde' and 'free' forms of jazz o was inspired by black church music, rhythm and blues, bebop and 1940's, European classical music, Indian and African music • modal jazz • o Coltrane's "My favorite things" o  originally written where the darkness was nazi's, but shifted into where the darkness is the civil rights movement  shift from minor to major modes/keys (darker to brighter) o reaction to bebop 7 Week 4/5 • free jazz • o 50-60s o  American civil rights movement   equal rights for all people, not just blacks (blacks inspired it)  Dr. Martin Luther King and SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee) use civil disobedience  jazz is against war because jazz itself was born from oppression o artists who directly responded to the civil rights movement o  Max Roach o   bebop percussionist o  Nina Simone - Mississippi Goddam o   music categorized as a mixture between classical, blues, folk, and jazz o  John Coltrane - Alabama  Abbey Lincoln o   she was a vocalist  worked with roach on his civil rights movement • o  Charles Mingus o   wrote a song in response to an Arkansas governor  bass player and pianist  avant-guard • early 60's • o Rocket Ranger IV landed on the moon o inspired great enthusiasm for other possibilities in life and music o free jazz people o  Bill Dixon 8   trumpet  Ornette Coleman (1930- ) o   one of the leaders of the avant-guard jazz movement  laid groundwork for being able to swing freely over a rhythm section w/no chordal instrument to define the harmonic body    harmolodics o  Sun Ra (Sunny) o   philosopher AACM (Ancient to Future)  1st to incorporate African instruments and electronics into jazz  one of first to incorporate performance art in jazz  the band lived together  Egyptian thing • principles of free improv • o embracing any music, any sound, and any approach to making music/sound o exploring new textures and new sounds o harmony and melody may or may not be used o different styles and aesthetics can coexist o diversity is its most consistent characteristic o has no prescribed idiomatic sound • music was a good choice for african ameriancs after slavery • music brought races together, but illegaly cuz there was achohol ect. 9 Week 6 • innovators of New York free jazz (60's-70's) • o Ornette Coleman o Sun Ra o Bill Dixon o  trumpet  composer, improviser, educator, visual artist  o Cecil Taylor o  piano  believed the word jazz doesn't have any meaning o Albert Ayler o  sax o Archie Shepp o  sax  started w/Dixon  co-founded Jazz Composers Guild  recorded w/Coltrane (ascension)  focused on socially conscious music  taught ethnomusicology at Umass for 30 years  was a composer, a playwright, a poet, and an educator  wrote a piece for Malcom X who died o Steve Lacy o  soprano sax (important)  made impact on free jazz, traditional jazz, and contemporary classical music  one of the most soprano sax of his time period  developed new improv language on sax  wrote a book "Findings: My experience w/soprano sax"  taught at New England Conservatory • European Innovators of Free Jazz (improvised music) • o they used the words improvised music instead of jazz because o  jazz had pretenses, they just wanted to play  they wanted to be authentic and orginal • o musicians took the music less seriously, wanted to entertain the audience more then play a creative piece 10 o based on resistance, but it was a viewed as a good thing rather then bad in America o musicians o  Derek Bailey   London  guitarist  published "Improv: its nature and practice in music"  co-founded first musician owned label in the UK (Incus Label)  Joelle Leandre (a chick!)
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