Psy Beh 101D - Lecture 5 - Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development.rtf

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University of California - Irvine
Psychology and Social Behavior
Kara Thorsen

Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development Life Span Developmental Psychology th January 25 , 2012 Lecture 5: Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development • Motor Development • Sensation and Perception Newborn Reflexes • Reflexes: built-in reactions to stimuli • Some reflexes have adaptive value – Rooting reflex: Turning head towards stimulation – Sucking reflex: Suck on item placed in the mouth • Other reflexes with adaptive value – Grasping: grasps object when palms are touched – Swimming: holds breath and makes swimming movements with arms and legs – Moro: startle response to sound or “dropping” by throwing head back and arms/legs stretch out – Babinski: Fanning out of toes when foot is stroked – Stepping: Infants seem to walk when feet are placed on hard surface Reflexes and Brain Development • Indication of early brain development – Certain reflexes at certain times, then disappear – Presence or absence, strength of reaction can be used to determine brain damage Gross Motor Milestones in Infancy Infancy: Gross Motor Skills • Gross Motor skills: involve large-muscle activities • E.g., kicking, walking • Specific progression has not been identified • Wide range for age-appropriate skills • Expert crawlers 7-12 months – Beginnings of cruising, holding on to supports • Walking between 9-17 months • Running between 18-24 months Infancy: Locomotion • Independent mobility, not just movement • Variation • E.g., crawling alternatives • Bum-shuffling in a sitting position (scooting) • Log rolling • Combat crawl (commando crawl) Infancy: Fine Motor Skills • Fine Motor skills: finely tuned movements; finger dexterity • E.g., picking up a penny, writing • Early fine motor: Coordinating reaching, grasping, and mouthing • Development of grasping – Palmer grasp (5-7 months) – Transfer objects between hands (~6 months) – Pincer grasp (8 months on) • Refinements in grasping – By 6 months, adjust grip to object properties – By 8 or 9 months, anticipate properties – Around 11 months, tool use and hand preference Influence of Experience • Experience may benefit motor development – Infants with walker experience: delayed walking • Lack of experiences without walker • Development of unsuccessful strategies • Practice makes perfect – Stepping reflex, walked earlier – Coordinating limbs, engaging in everyday movements – Structure not necessary Childhood: Gross and Fine Motor Development • Refinement and adaptation to a changing environment • Movements are more fluid and rhythmic • Integration of movements • Hopping + running = skipping • Hand-eye coordination and fine motor skills Adolescence & Adulthood: Gross Motor Skills • Gross motor skills improve during adolescence • Muscle mass increase in strength • Physical peak between 19-26 yrs • 30 yrs: begin decline of cardiovascular functioning, muscle strength, bone tissue, neural function, balance, and flexibility • Late adulthood: slower movements Adolescence and Adulthood: Fine Motor Skills • Adolescence: continued refinement • Mid- and late-adulthood • Slowing + decline in dexterity decline in fine motor skills • Most skills are still functional (reaching, grasping) • Putting together multiple components that comprise complex tasks become harder • Brain slowing mental and motor functioning Sensation and Perception • Sensation: Processing of information by sensory receptors • “Receiving” • Perception: Organization and interpretation; making sense of what is processed by sensory receptors • “Interpreting” Infancy: Hearing • Newborn preferences • Mothe
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